How To Use Harmonic Patterns To Trade Binary Options

[They] Are Not Journalists. [They] Are Not Reporters. [They] Are Professional Mouthpieces. [They] Are The 'Clowns In America'. Names, Headshots, And News Organization. 18 U.S. Code § 2384 - Seditious Conspiracy 18 U.S. Code § 1962 - R.I.C.O. + 'Crimes Against Humanity'

[They] Are Not Journalists. [They] Are Not Reporters. [They] Are Professional Mouthpieces. [They] Are The 'Clowns In America'. Names, Headshots, And News Organization. 18 U.S. Code § 2384 - Seditious Conspiracy 18 U.S. Code § 1962 - R.I.C.O. + 'Crimes Against Humanity'
When You’re Sitting Comfortably In Front Of Your TV, Keep In Mind That The Actual Patent For The Television Was Filed As Electromagnetic Nervous System Manipulation Apparatus.


At any rate, here are the patents. Just reading some of them helped me to understand the attacks against me and to resist them. Round-robin voices–a man, woman, and child–at different frequencies–are just one example.
Hearing Device – US4858612 – Inventor, Phillip L. Stocklin – Assignee, Mentec AG. A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4858612
Hearing System – US4877027 – Inventor & Assignee, Wayne B. Brunkan. Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4877027
Silent Subliminal Representation System – US5159703 – Inventor & Assignee, Oliver M. Lowery. A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5159703
Method and Device for Interpreting Concepts and Conceptual Thought from Brainwave Data & for Assisting for Diagnosis of Brainwave Disfunction – US5392788 – Inventor, William J. Hudspeth – Assignee, Samuel J. Leven. A system for acquisition and decoding of EP and SP signals is provided which comprises a transducer for presenting stimuli to a subject, EEG transducers for recording brainwave signals from the subject, a computer for controlling and synchronizing stimuli presented to the subject and for concurrently recording brainwave signals, and either interpreting signals using a model for conceptual perceptional and emotional thought to correspond EEG signals to thought of the subject or comparing signals to normative EEG signals from a normative population to diagnose and locate the origin of brain dysfunctional underlying perception, conception, and emotion.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5392788
Method and an Associated Apparatus for Remotely Determining Information as to Person’s Emotional State – US5507291 – Inventors & Assignees, Robert C. Stirbl & Peter J. Wilk. In a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5507291
Apparatus for Electric Stimulation of Auditory Nerves of a Human Being – US5922016 – Inventors & Assignees, Erwin & Ingeborg Hochmair. Apparatus for electric stimulation and diagnostics of auditory nerves of a human being, e.g. for determination of sensation level (SL), most conformable level (MCL) and uncomfortable level (UCL) audibility curves, includes a stimulator detachably secured to a human being for sending a signal into a human ear, and an electrode placed within the human ear and electrically connected to the stimulator by an electric conductor for conducting the signals from the stimulator into the ear. A control unit is operatively connected to the stimulator for instructing the stimulator as to characteristics of the generated signals being transmitted to the ear.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5922016
Brain Wave Inducing System – US5954629 – Inventors, Masatoshi Yanagidaira, Yuchi Kimikawa, Takeshi Fukami & Mitsuo Yasushi – Assignee, Pioneer Corp. Sensors are provided for detecting brain waves of a user, and a band-pass filter is provided for extracting a particular brain waves including an α wave included in a detected brain wave. The band-pass filter comprises a first band-pass filter having a narrow pass band, and a second band-pass filter having a wide pass band. One of the first and second band-pass filters is selected, and a stimulation signal is produced in dependency on an α wave extracted by a selected band-pass filter. In accordance with the stimulation signal, a stimulation light is emitted to the user in order to induce the user to relax or sleeping state.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5954629
Layout Overlap Detection with Selective Flattening in Computer Implemented Integrated Circuit Design – US6011991 – Inventors, Wai-Yan Ho & Hongbo Tang – Assignee, Synopsys Inc. The present invention relates to a method for efficiently performing hierarchical design rules checks (DRC) and layout versus schematic comparison (LVS) on layout areas of an integrated circuit where cells overlap or where a cell and local geometry overlap. With the present invention, a hierarchical tree describes the integrated circuit’s layout data including cells having parent-child relationships and including local geometry. The present invention performs efficient layout verification by performing LVS and DRC checking on the new portions of an integrated circuit design and layout areas containing overlapping cells. When instances of cells overlap, the present invention determines the overlap area using predefined data structures that divide each cell into an array of spatial bins. Each bin of a parent is examined to determine if two or more cell instances reside therein or if a cell instance and local geometry reside therein. Once overlap is detected, the areas of the layout data corresponding to the overlap areas are selectively flattened prior to proceeding to DRC and LVS processing. During selective flattening of the overlap areas, the hierarchical tree is traversed from the top cell down through intermediate nodes to the leaf nodes. Each time geometry data is located during the traversal, it is pushes directly to the top cell without being stored in intermediate locations. This provides an effective mechanism for selective flattening.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6011991
Apparatus for Audibly Communicating Speech Using the Radio Frequency Hearing Effect – US6587729 – Inventors, James P. O’laughlin & Diana L. Loree – Assignee, US Air Force. A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6587729
Coupling an Electronic Skin Tattoo to a Mobile Communication Device – US20130297301A1 – Inventor, William P. Alberth, Jr. – Assignee, Google Technology Holdings LLC (formerly Motorola Mobility LLC). A system and method provides auxiliary voice input to a mobile communication device (MCD). The system comprises an electronic skin tattoo capable of being applied to a throat region of a body. The electronic skin tattoo can include an embedded microphone; a transceiver for enabling wireless communication with the MCD; and a power supply configured to receive energizing signals from a personal area network associated with the MCD. A controller is communicatively coupled to the power supply. The controller can be configured to receive a signal from the MCD to initiate reception of an audio stream picked up from the throat region of the body for subsequent audio detection by the MCD under an improved signal-to-noise ratio than without the employment of the electronic skin tattoo.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US20130297301A1
Apparatus for Remotely Altering & Monitoring Brainwaves – US3951134 – Inventor, Robert G. Malech – Assignee, Dorne & Margolin Inc. Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3951134
Auditory Subliminal Message System & Method – US4395600 – Inventors, Rene R. Lundy & David L. Tyler – Assignee, Proactive Systems Inc. Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti-shoplifting message to increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and transmitted to the shopping area. To reduce distortion of the subliminal message, its amplitude is controlled to increase at a first rate slower than the rate of increase of the amplitude of ambient audio signals from the area. Also, the amplitude of the subliminal message is controlled to decrease at a second rate faster than the first rate with decreasing ambient audio signal amplitudes to minimize the possibility of the subliminal message becoming supraliminal upon rapid declines in ambient audio signal amplitudes in the area. A masking signal is provided with an amplitude which is also controlled in response to the amplitude of sensed ambient audio signals. This masking signal may be combined with the auditory subliminal message to provide a composite signal fed to, and controlled by, the control circuit.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4395600
Apparatus for Inducing Frequency Reduction in Brain Wave – US4834701 – Inventor, Kazumi Masaki – Assignee, Ken Hayashibara. Frequency reduction in human brain wave is inducible by allowing human brain to perceive 4-16 hertz beat sound. Such beat sound can be easily produced with an apparatus, comprising at least one sound source generating a set of low-frequency signals different each other in frequency by 4-16 hertz. Electroencephalographic study revealed that the beat sound is effective to reduce beta-rhythm into alpha-rhythm, as well as to retain alpha-rhythm.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US4834701
Method & System for Altering Consciousness – US5123899 – Inventor & Assignee, James Gall. A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation
g=s.sup.n/4 ·fwhere f=frequency of one stimulus; g=frequency of the other stimuli of stimulus; and n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.Click on Link for Full Patent: US5123899
Method of and Apparatus for Inducing Desired States of Consciousness – US5356368 – Inventor, Robert A. Monroe – Assignee, Interstate Industries Inc. Improved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency following response (FFR) techniques, facilitate attainment of desired states of consciousness. In one embodiment, a plurality of electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms, characteristic of a given state of consciousness, are combined to yield an EEG waveform to which subjects may be susceptible more readily. In another embodiment, sleep patterns are reproduced based on observed brain patterns during portions of a sleep cycle; entrainment principles are applied to induce sleep. In yet another embodiment, entrainment principles are applied in the work environment, to induce and maintain a desired level of consciousness. A portable device also is described.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5356368
Acoustic Heterodyne Device & Method – US5889870 – Inventor, Elwood G. Norris – Assignee, Turtle Beach Corp. (formerly American Tech Corp.) The present invention is the emission of new sonic or subsonic compression waves from a region resonant cavity or similar of interference of at least two ultrasonic wave trains. In one embodiment, two ultrasonic emitters are oriented toward the cavity so as to cause interference between emitted ultrasonic wave trains. When the difference in frequency between the two ultrasonic wave trains is in the sonic or subsonic frequency range, a new sonic or subsonic wave train of that frequency is emitted from within the cavity or region of interference in accordance with the principles of acoustical heterodyning. The preferred embodiment is a system comprised of a single ultrasonic radiating element oriented toward the cavity emitting multiple waves.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US5889870
Apparatus & Method of Broadcasting Audible Sound Using Ultrasonic Sound as a Carrier – US60552336 – Inventor & Assignee, Austin Lowrey III. An ultrasonic sound source broadcasts an ultrasonic signal which is amplitude and/or frequency modulated with an information input signal originating from an information input source. If the signals are amplitude modulated, a square root function of the information input signal is produced prior to modulation. The modulated signal, which may be amplified, is then broadcast via a projector unit, whereupon an individual or group of individuals located in the broadcast region detect the audible sound.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6052336
Pulsative Manipulation of Nervous Systems – US6091994 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Method and apparatus for manipulating the nervous system by imparting subliminal pulsative cooling to the subject’s skin at a frequency that is suitable for the excitation of a sensory resonance. At present, two major sensory resonances are known, with frequencies near 1/2 Hz and 2.4 Hz. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance causes relaxation, sleepiness, ptosis of the eyelids, a tonic smile, a “knot” in the stomach, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used. The 2.4 Hz resonance causes the slowing of certain cortical activities, and is characterized by a large increase of the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 60, with the eyes closed. The invention can be used by the general public for inducing relaxation, sleep, or sexual excitement, and clinically for the control and perhaps a treatment of tremors, seizures, and autonomic system disorders such as panic attacks. Embodiments shown are a pulsed fan to impart subliminal cooling pulses to the subject’s skin, and a silent device which induces periodically varying flow past the subject’s skin, the flow being induced by pulsative rising warm air plumes that are caused by a thin resistive wire which is periodically heated by electric current pulses.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6091994
Method & Device for Implementing Radio Frequency Hearing Effect – US6470214 – Inventors, James P. O’Loughlin & Diana Loree. Assignee, US Air Force. A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM), with both sidebands present.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6470214
Method & Device for Producing a Desired Brain State – US6488617 – Inventor, Bruce F. Katz – Assignee, Universal Hedonics. A method and device for the production of a desired brain state in an individual contain means for monitoring and analyzing the brain state while a set of one or more magnets produce fields that alter this state. A computational system alters various parameters of the magnetic fields in order to close the gap between the actual and desired brain state. This feedback process operates continuously until the gap is minimized and/or removed.

Multifunctional Radio Frequency Directed Energy System – US7629918 – Inventors, Kenneth W. Brown, David J. Canich & Russell F. Berg – Assignee, Raytheon Co. An RFDE system includes an RFDE transmitter and at least one RFDE antenna. The RFDE transmitter and antenna direct high power electromagnetic energy towards a target sufficient to cause high energy damage or disruption of the target. The RFDE system further includes a targeting system for locating the target. The targeting system includes a radar transmitter and at least one radar antenna for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic energy to locate the target. The RFDE system also includes an antenna pointing system for aiming the at least one RFDE antenna at the target based on the location of the target as ascertained by the targeting system. Moreover, at least a portion of the radar transmitter or the at least one radar antenna is integrated within at least a portion of the RFDE transmitter or the at least one RFDE antenna.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US7629918
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3393279
Method & System for Simplifying Speech Wave Forms – US3647970 – Inventor & Assignee, Gillis P. Flanagan. A speech waveform is converted to a constant amplitude square wave in which the transitions between the amplitude extremes are spaced so as to carry the speech information. The system includes a pair of tuned amplifier circuits which act as high-pass filters having a 6 decibel per octave slope from 0 to 15,000 cycles followed by two stages, each comprised of an amplifier and clipper circuit, for converting the filtered waveform to a square wave. A radio transmitter and receiver having a plurality of separate channels within a conventional single side band transmitter bandwidth and a system for transmitting secure speech information are also disclosed.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US3647970
Intra-Oral Electronic Tracking Device – US6239705 – Inventor & Assignee, Jeffrey Glen. An improved stealthy, non-surgical, biocompatable electronic tracking device is provided in which a housing is placed intraorally. The housing contains microcircuitry. The microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a signal decoder for determining positional fix, a transmitter, an antenna, and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the positional fix signal decoder is energized, determining a positional fix. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a position locating signal to be received by a remote locator. In another embodiment of the present invention, the microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a transmitter, an antenna and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the transmitter is energized. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a homing signal to be received by a remote locator.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6239705
Method & Apparatus for Analyzing Neurological Response to Emotion-Inducing Stimuli – US6292688 – Inventor, Richard E. Patton – Assignee, Advanced Neurotechnologies, Inc. A method of determining the extent of the emotional response of a test subject to stimului having a time-varying visual content, for example, an advertising presentation. The test subject is positioned to observe the presentation for a given duration, and a path of communication is established between the subject and a brain wave detectoanalyzer. The intensity component of each of at least two different brain wave frequencies is measured during the exposure, and each frequency is associated with a particular emotion. While the subject views the presentation, periodic variations in the intensity component of the brain waves of each of the particular frequencies selected is measured. The change rates in the intensity at regular periods during the duration are also measured. The intensity change rates are then used to construct a graph of plural coordinate points, and these coordinate points graphically establish the composite emotional reaction of the subject as the presentation continues.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6292688
Portable & Hand-Held Device for Making Humanly Audible Sounds Responsive to the Detecting of Ultrasonic Sounds – US6426919 – Inventor & Assignee, William A. Gerosa. A portable and hand-held device for making humanly audible sounds responsive to the detecting of ultrasonic sounds. The device includes a hand-held housing and circuitry that is contained in the housing. The circuitry includes a microphone that receives the ultrasonic sound, a first low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the microphone, a second low voltage audio power amplifier that further strengthens the signal from the first low voltage audio power amplifier, a 7-stage ripple carry binary counter that lowers the frequency of the signal from the second low voltage audio power amplifier so as to be humanly audible, a third low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the 7-stage ripple carry binary counter, and a speaker that generates a humanly audible sound from the third low voltage audio power amplifier.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6426919
Signal Injection Coupling into the Human Vocal Tract for Robust Audible & Inaudible Voice Recognition – US6487531 – Inventors & Assignees, Carol A. Tosaya & John W. Sliwa, Jr. A means and method are provided for enhancing or replacing the natural excitation of the human vocal tract by artificial excitation means, wherein the artificially created acoustics present additional spectral, temporal, or phase data useful for (1) enhancing the machine recognition robustness of audible speech or (2) enabling more robust machine-recognition of relatively inaudible mouthed or whispered speech. The artificial excitation (a) may be arranged to be audible or inaudible, (b) may be designed to be non-interfering with another user’s similar means, (c) may be used in one or both of a vocal content-enhancement mode or a complimentary vocal tract-probing mode, and/or (d) may be used for the recognition of audible or inaudible continuous speech or isolated spoken commands.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6487531
Nervous System Manipulation by Electromagnetic Fields from Monitors – US6506148 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near ½ Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6506148
Apparatus To Effect Brainwave Entrainment over Premises Power-Line Wiring – US8579793 – Inventor, James David Honeycutt & John Clois Honeycutt, Jr. – Assignee, James David Honeycutt. This invention discloses an apparatus and method to affect brainwave entrainment by Very Low Frequency eXclusive-OR (XOR) modulation of a Very High Frequency carrier over a premise’s power-line Alternating Current (AC) wiring. A microcontroller with stored program memory space is used to store and produce the waveforms that lead to brainwave entrainment by controlling an H-Bridge capable of generating bipolar square waves, which output is capacitive coupled to a premises AC power-line and a light sensing device is used by the microcontroller to determine whether to produce daytime or nighttime entrainment frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US8579793
Method & System for Brain Entrainment – US20140309484A1 – Inventor & Assignee, Daniel Wonchul Chong. The present invention is a method of modifying music files to induce a desired state of consciousness. First and second modulations are introduced into a music file such that, when the music file is played, both of the modulations occur simultaneously. Additional modulations can be introduced, as well as sound tones at window frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US20140309484A1
Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being – US6135944 – Inventors, Gerard D. Bowman, Edward M. Karam & Steven C. Benson – Assignee, Gerard D. Bowman. A method of inducing harmonious states of being using vibrational stimuli, preferably sound, comprised of a multitude of frequencies expressing a specific pattern of relationship. Two base signals are modulated by a set of ratios to generate a plurality of harmonics. The harmonics are combined to form a “fractal” arrangement.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6135944
Pulse Variability in Electric Field Manipulation of Nervous Systems – US6167304 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus G. Loos. Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject by applying to the skin a pulsing external electric field which, although too weak to cause classical nerve stimulation, modulates the normal spontaneous spiking patterns of certain kinds of afferent nerves. For certain pulse frequencies the electric field stimulation can excite in the nervous system resonances with observable physiological consequences. Pulse variability is introduced for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the nervous system to the repetitive stimulation, or to alleviate the need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency, or to control pathological oscillatory neural activities such as tremors or seizures. Pulse generators with stochastic and deterministic pulse variability are disclosed, and the output of an effective generator of the latter type is characterized.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US6167304
Method & System for Brain Entertainment – US8636640 – Inventor, Daniel Wonchul Chang – Assignee, Brain Symphony LLC. The present invention is a method of modifying music files to induce a desired state of consciousness. First and second modulations are introduced into a music file such that, when the music file is played, both of the modulations occur simultaneously. Additional modulations can be introduced, as well as sound tones at window frequencies.
Click on Link for Full Patent: US8636640
Method & Apparatus for Manipulating Nervous Systems – US5782874 – Inventor & Assignee, Hendricus C. Loos. Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject through afferent nerves, modulated by externally applied weak fluctuating electric fields, tuned to certain frequencies such as to excite a resonance in certain neural circuits. Depending on the frequency chosen, excitation of such resonances causes relaxation, sleepiness, sexual excitement, or the slowing of certain cortical processes. The weak electric field for causing the excitation is applied to skin areas away from the head of the subject, such as to avoid substantial polarization current densities in the brain. By exploiting the resonance phenomenon, these physiological effects can be brought about by very weak electric fields produced by compact battery-operated devices with very low current assumption. The fringe field of doublet electrodes that form a parallel-plate condenser can serve as the required external electric field to be administered to the subject’s skin. Several such doublets can be combined such as to induce an electric field with short range, suitable for localized field administration. A passive doublet placed such as to face the doublet on either side causes a boost of the distant induced electric field, and allows the design of very compact devices. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps the treatment of tremors and seizures, and disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as panic attacks.
This is every person involved in the main stream media that that is in deep shit with no way out.

  • Clowns Exposed ― Faces Of Seditious Conspirators In The U.S. Media.
  • I'll Kick This Off With The 65 “Journalists” WikiLeaks Revealed Accepted To Work With The DNC And The Hillary Clinton Campaign To Influence And Steal The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election.
submitted by OwnPlant to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Two-Man Mystery Hunt: Chordal Callings (Update 12)


The spam filter really didn't like me this week. This is my fourth fifth attempt to make a post that won't get removed immediately upon submission. This was entirely written by yesterday afternoon, and I'm still confused as to why it's not live, so I'm reposting it.
Outside of Hunt-land, next week, Syntax is going to have finals and a busy work schedule. Not only that, but the plug separated from the cord on his laptop charger yesterday. We soldered it, but we don't know how long that'll hold up or how long it'll take for a new one to be shipped. While there isn't much that will prevent me from solving things personally, I likely will not be able to keep up on my own (especially since we're down to only the stuckest things.)
The title might be a bit weird this week, but I didn't have a pun or a pop culture reference in my head. That's because I spent most of the weekend playing Magic: The Gathering like the nerd I am. I realized that my favorite Magic card would be doubly (if not triply) relevant to the puzzles in this update, so it sort of became the name of the post.
Anyway, here it goes again.

Rules Changes

Usually, I put questions about the rules in the "final notes" section, but this is important enough to go in the header.
We finally unlocked Your Birthday Town this week (party on!) It's been unclear whether there's any non-trivial way for us to interact with it-- the answers I've heard have consistently varied between "no" and "maybe". If there were spoiler-tastic behind-the-scenes discussions about what would happen when we got here, we obviously haven't heard the results of them.
It was suggested at some point that we could just view the answer to see what the puzzle should have been, then move on with our lives. That feels kind of unsatisfying, but since we have no way to know what the difficult-to-replicate part of the puzzle could be, we'll do it if we have no other options by the time of the next write-up (even if it's another announcement that says the Hunt didn't move far enough.)
Incidentally, that will be a week from tomorrow, which is Syntax's actual birthday.

Tales of a Magic: The Gathering-Crazed Shire

A Tiny Note About Rose Garden

While it was fairly obvious that something was missing from the clues, I'm surprised that we didn't use the years or realize that team names could be important until now. Sometimes, we completely miss the intent of a puzzle when we go through it. This puzzle's design was a lot more clever than we were.

A Tiny Note About I AM GROOT

People still ask me about this one-- it happened at least once at Magic this weekend. I told a lot of people about this before I knew how to get the answer, and I still get asked if I've solved it. They're amazed that people actually figured out what to do and were able to do it, and are generally surprised that the answer doesn't have a lot to do with Groot.

A Tiny Note About Something In Common

I've had some problems explaining what this puzzle was to outsiders. I've had some success, though, mostly by singing the House of the Rising Sun melody with the lyrics "I wanna be the very best / That saved a wretch like me / Remember Christ our savior was / United States Marines".

A Tiny Note About No Shirt

One of the most surprising moments in this entire journey was when I found out that the solution page to this puzzle was entirely clean.

Puzzle-Specific Notes (Solved)

A Bunch Of Ripoffs

"I would say that's a novel approach, except that it's exactly not as novel as other teams." - the puzzle creator
Identify, sort, index, solve. It's been a common enough archetype in Hunt history to get a name. There were a few of them near the beginning of the Hunt this year-- mostly about weird pop-culture topics for comic relief-- but the formula has rarely been played straight in the later rounds. There have been a couple of puzzles (IN SYNdiCation, for example) where we got stuck because we incorrectly assumed that they would play the formula straight. I've sort of come to expect puzzles that start with "identify, sort" to end with "sort again, index, task" or "do something completely unrelated to the rest of the puzzle, solve". This one was the former.
Syntax tackled everything on the puzzle page fairly quickly, so I didn't have a lot to do with identifying the books. One thing that he realized very quickly was that people avoid naming the villain in a whodunit when they give a short synopsis of it. Between the obscurity of some of the books and the amount of Google hits that we found to be completely unhelpful, the identification here was actually fairly difficult.
The phrase "TEAR US A NEW ONE" came out of it all. We thought that making a new mystery novel cover would be easy but potentially time-consuming, so we worked on other things until we hit a slow week. Then, last week was so slow that we barely got to averaging one solve a day. I was at the point where we had six solves and I wanted one more before I wrote anything, and decided to complete this.
As it turns out, I'm really bad at using image manipulation tools to recreate the images in the puzzle with different text. As it also turns out, I didn't have a disposable mystery novel to tear up. (Something about tearing up books makes me feel a little uncomfortable, as well.) Then I remembered that the context in which the phrase "tear us a new one" comes up is rarely about literally tearing something.
"I'll have you know I graduated top of my class in the Navy Seals..." - a great sage, probably
I needed a long insult-laced tirade to submit in lieu of a novel cover, and the Navy Seal copypasta was the first thing that came to my head. Of course, I did edit it so that it was a lot more relevant to the puzzle and to our team in general. I have to say that I really enjoyed this one.
That being said, as our Hunt is slow and unofficial, the various task submissions can have wildly varying response times. While waiting for a response, we'd managed to solve Split Seven Ways, and I proceeded to post the write-up for the week. Even though the delay sort of implied that something was happening in the background, I was surprised when the response that I got back was a continuation of the puzzle. It was a great twist, and it didn't take too long for me to find out what was missing from the cover to solve it.


Most of the puzzles that played the "identify-sort-index-solve" formula entirely straight this year have had at least one step that was about a completely different topic from the rest of the puzzle. This was no exception.
A lot of effort on my part was put into dissecting the seemingly-irrelevant changes to the original books' text ("Alma. Janine. Dolores. Moira. Patty.") Travelogue has had more extraneous information presented on the puzzle page than almost anything else this year, all things considered, and it definitely obfuscated the correct path to the answer even with the blatant flavor text.
I had the three-letter abbreviations and authors listed from before we took any of the puzzles seriously for some reason. "Are these airport codes?" gets suggested nearly as often as "is this Caressing?", and we asked that question multiple times before I got anything out of it. Syntax and I had both thought that airports weren't relevant to the puzzle for some time; we knew that most or all of the TLAs were real airport codes, but they were usually for tiny airports, and it isn't too unlikely that it could happen with completely random letters. This week, I decided to list them all out anyway.
At a certain point last year, Syntax and I had a discussion about how difficult it would be for someone to visit every time zone. Even disregarding the fact that repeatedly flying overseas to different countries would be prohibitively expensive for almost everyone, there are still a lot of time zones that are just plain hard to get to. Several countries which are very questionable tourist desinations have unique time zones. There are also a few time zones which don't have a lot of land in them. UTC-12 only has two uninhabited islands in it, for example, and UTC+14 isn't much better. At first, we thought that UTC-2 would also be very difficult to visit, with its landmasses only consisting of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, but then we realized that Fernando de Noronha, a small archipelago off the coast of Brazil, was much more accessible and just so happened to use that time zone.
That last bit of information ended up being extremely relevant here. I ended up listing out the airports on the spreadsheet this week, despite them not having any apparent pattern, hit the one in Fernando de Noronha, and correctly assumed that it was only included because of the severe lack of airports in UTC-2.
Even though the stretch of time zones was apparent, my chart was reversed, and it took a couple of minutes to figure out how to properly index. I don't know whether the last letters of the codes running from UTC-1 to UTC-7 were meant to spell out "on a card", but I took it as a clue. Since I completely failed to think of a non-numerical playing card that was three letters long, I had to figure out how to properly index into the authors' names and then feel really stupid after looking up the code for Lanzarote.
I'd guess that this would be among the hardest non-technical puzzles in Bloomsday, except that three-letter answers are typically pretty easy to backsolve.

Flag Day

The main obstacle to completing this was getting enough people that were willing to be guinea pigs. Thankfully, I still know a lot of people at my former college's board gaming club, and this wasn't too different from a normal game of charades with us.
We had two friends on one side of a large room there, me and a friend on the other side, and Syntax moderating. Syntax assumed that we couldn't both participate without spoiling the puzzle. Because Syntax was moderating, he also made decks of cards with the words on them so we could send them back and forth in a random order.
The first couple of messages were rocky, but after a certain point, doing the correct motions got to be fairly simple (though it distracted a lot of people walking by.) At some point, my partner left to go play another game, so I had to signal to the other team by myself. Letters like "T" and "Y" suddenly got really hard.
Since I had a complete team sending things to me, and I only needed to receive four messages, I quickly figured out the puzzle, and got to the answer without the other side. But, apparently, it couldn't end until the other team could recognize all of the correct codes. "GOLD INLAY" was not something that they were picking up on, and even with me sending the message repeatedly, it didn't get communicated very clearly.
To whoever helped us with our semaphore, thank you for the 20 solvent.

Ridin' Delhi

In Holi Town, a certain Mr. Chand tells you a colorful story about three members of the Indian Resistance and their journeys throughout the subcontinent. - flavor text, emphasis mine
"That's so stupid if it's actually the answer." - Syntax
I looked at this for a while during a break between rounds of a Magic tournament and realized that I probably had to index into the cities by color somehow. While the Ticket to Ride map was fairly obvious to us, and identifying the cities wasn't too difficult, we somehow forgot about resistor color codes existing. Oops.
I like how the character names both were color words and were colored in properly. There was no confusion there. We also thought that it was supposed to be more of a logic puzzle than what it actually was.
This is where I mention that we only got one Holi solve this week. Also, this is where I talk about not being able to say a lot about certain puzzles. Did I mention that Holi is hard and stuck to the point of being unreasonable? I kind of have to do that.

Turn On A Dime

Meanwhile, a lot of the puzzles in Bloomsday were decidedly quick, and they also had some of the flashiest presentation.
I don't know how you all find out everything that has ever been alphabetized. While Syntax was busy matching the front of the coins, I was identifying the images on the back and lucked into finding the design of the ten pence coins before I realized that there were multiple designs that went from A to Z.
We still don't know how there were so many near-identical fronts or backs of US coins with different values. Several of the coins' differences came down to the mintmarks; meanwhile, a few of them we had to disambiguate by seeing what would make a correctly-spelled clue phrase. We realized that the mintage numbers mattered, and we started to work on opposite ends of the line. Syntax found the letter "B" to be the first thing in the message, and I expressed concern.
"It's a 26-letter clue phrase. That isn't an A for "answer." That isn't a C for 'call in X'. That isn't a T for 'the solution to all of your problems is the name of this coin.' It's a B for 'bring us something'. Probably a coin. Hopefully not a past Mystery Hunt coin, because I don't think we have any of those." - my feelings, paraphrased
We learned that the expression started with "bring" and ended with "coin", and things got worse. It didn't help that this process was pretty slow-- there wasn't one convenient source we could use for the number of every coin in existence. The gap being filled in with "HQ any real Canadian" was honestly a relief.
I kind of assumed that you'd normally keep the coin, but just like with our joker, I decided to use our inability to give you all an object could be an opportunity to be creative. Here are the pictures of a Canadian $25 coin that got submitted. We have one laying around because at one point, our family drove to Winnipeg because it was close and we hadn't ever seen it before. That happens to be where the Canadian mint is; they sell a lot of souvenir coins and things, and they really like to talk about Canada having painted circulation coins in full color.
(Oddly, the Winnipeg mint doesn't typically make collector coins; that's usually reserved for the other mint in Ottawa that makes nothing but collector coins. They do, however, make all of the coins that are intended to go into circulation. Maybe a regular coin would have been more fitting.)
After Travel Planning had the hardest part of the puzzle on the flyer, I've been cautious about assuming that whatever we get back from calling into Setec will be either a direct answer line or a puzzle with a trivial solution. The final step ended up looking hard. It looked a lot harder than it was, though. I'd stopped thinking about those ten pence coins a while back, but Syntax didn't, and we got to the answer right away.

Getting Digits

Yesterday, Syntax said that the worst kind of mistake is when you dismiss the right answer while chasing something else. This was in reference to a different puzzle that's a couple of entries below this.
I'd beg to disagree, though. To me, the second-worst kind of mistake is thinking of the right answer and throwing it out. The worst kind of mistake is when you end up with a wrong answer that doesn't have any apparent differences from what the right answer should be.
While the presentation was cool and answering the clues was fun, we got through that part fast enough to not have a story. (The inclusion of a list of Chinese names and a patent number in the puzzle was pure evil, however.) We had the right mechanics for getting digits out of the clues, too. I called the number we had, which I will not mention because it might be the thing that's causing my posts to disappear, and this is where the fun began.
"Your call cannot be completed as dialed. Please check the number and dial again, or dial 611 for customer service. Message G A zero zero one fifty-one."
Before I could dial again, another message played:
"Your call cannot be completed as dialed. Please check the number and dial again, or dial 611 for customer service. Message M N one eight four fifty-one."
Dialing 611 did nothing, and having the "51" at the end of both messages didn't help, either. The call disconnected itself. I called the number again.
"Your call cannot be completed as dialed. Please check the number and dial again, or dial 611 for customer service. Message I L zero zero two fifty-one."
"Your call cannot be completed as dialed. Please check the number and dial again, or dial 611 for customer service. Message M N one eight three fifty-one."
That's it! Every time I call, I get some random other state's number, and a message telling me where I am with a random number, and I need to figure out how they relate to each other. There's no way that there would just be random message numbers from our service provider when it's sending out the same message every time.
I kept getting the same two responses when I called, though. Syntax could only manage to get Texas, 006. (I managed to get Michigan, 201, as well when I transcribed the message for the write-up.) This was stuck unless we could find enough different phones to collect close to every state's number.
Syntax suggested that we did something wrong after about 45 minutes of trying to solve this, and I dialed a 555 number to test it. I got the same response back. Oops.
We couldn't find where we made our mistake, though, and we had to verify that the number still was live. This was stuck for several days. We ended up making the assumption that one of the digits in the number was supposed to be a 0, 4, or 7, and that only one segment could be wrong. Then, I found out that 683 wasn't a real area code, which was enough to uniquely identify the mistake. We had "Murder on the Orient Express" listed as our Kenneth Branagh movie, when we really should have had something with "off" in it. I don't think we could have resolved that one by just checking if we'd correctly answered the clues.
The answer checker to this was apparently broken when we unlocked this, but we were reassured that it would be fixed, and that the answer would be obvious even if it wasn't fixed. Then, we got told that it was fixed. Then, we got told that the number was supposed to work correctly. The number we dialed explicitly said that the answer was "MINI USB". That's a useful phrase for the Bloomsday-Arbor Day wheel, but the answer checker still didn't accept it. Not because it's still broken-- because I didn't clear my cache before trying it again.
Sometimes, the silliest things can make a puzzle go off the rails.


Good news! It isn't impossible!
We had a fair bit of work put into this puzzle, almost all of which was entirely unhelpful. The most helpful thing we did, oddly enough, was make printed copies of the puzzle so that our mom could think about "the sheet music puzzle" to get a nonexistent star.
Thinking that a puzzle is hard definitely changes the way we approach it. The 2011 hunt was the first one that I saw, and it had things like this IN THE FIRST ROUND. Meanwhile, the 2015 hunt was the first one where I'd put in effort to solving puzzles at random. The objectively hardest and also least-solved puzzles were things that took a lot of technical knowledge to even approach. Sometimes, this was extremely obvious, particularly in the case of Practice in Theory. It probably wasn't too much of a stretch to assume that this had two solves because it took graduate-level something.
Realizing that the rhythm of both lines could be interpreted as Morse Code was painfully obvious in hindsight, even if it wasn't that obvious at all.
I'd mentioned earlier this week that we thought we'd made headway on a Pi Day or Bloomsday puzzle by trying to guess who the author was. As a response to that, I was also given a generic yet cryptic piece of advice: "think about what information you haven't used yet". The odds that method gets us unstuck varies heavily from puzzle to puzzle, and certain authors tend to use every scrap of information on the page more than others. It felt like we were talking about different events.
When I found out what a harmonic table was, that tidbit came with a good number of progressive rock musicians that had used a keyboard in that configuration. That's when I realized that this was probably by the author of IN SYNdiCation, Turtle Power!, and (of course) Caressing, who is vaguely associated with a specific progressive-rock musician in a way that I will not describe because I want my post to still be readable. Nearly all of their puzzles have taken the form of figuring out what to do with a large amount of given information. The advice finally clicked with me.
Oddly enough, though, that conversation happened before I figured out what this puzzle was about; it was actually about a completely different puzzle, and an author who wrote a lot of puzzles where that piece of advice is completely irrelevant. Not only that, but I'm not sure if trying to guess who the author was ended up being helpful at all, because that one's going to be found in the "unsolved" section today.
When I went to draw out the harmonic table, I found out that I had accidentally invented my own. At some point, I tried to fill in the hexagons with notes so that all the chords would be covered, but couldn't quite get the right orientation, even though I found out that there was a consistent way to put notes on a hexagonal grid so that every corner would be a major or minor chord. This is mostly because I thought that the octaves mattered. That idea continued to bother me even when I had the correct harmonic table, and it took me about half an hour to figure out what to do with it.
I'm honestly surprised that I was able to get stuck because nobody had asked if a puzzle was Caressing. Not only does that get asked a lot, but it's unlikely to be the answer. The "connect-the-dots" tag in devjoe's index is criminally underused; while "drawing letters and numbers" lists a few more puzzles that are Caressing, it adds a lot that aren't. The fact that it was actually relevant in both Running for Office and Travel Planning feels really weird in hindsight. (There were links in this paragraph, but I took them out because they might have been causing my post to be filtered.)
This did go fast after that point, and we didn't even need to fold up the soccer ball. Using everything that we hadn't used-- the rests and the pitches-- was enough to get us to the answer. As usual, the challenge wasn't so much in translating the Morse or connecting or grouping the dots as much as figuring out that there was Morse and dots that could be connected.
One final note about this: Originally, we thought that all of the hard puzzles in Pi Day started with the letter P, and grouped them together as the "puh-puzzles". That really messed with us on Protection Plan. Once we realized that Protection Plan wasn't a difficult puzzle, we thought that this was the only impossible thing and that Playing A Round was supposed to be easy. Then, we got told that Playing A Round was the star after we solved it, which carried the implication that this wasn't that hard.
This is a prime example about how thinking about the difficulty of a puzzle before we actually attempt to solve it is sometimes very counterproductive.

Valentine's Day-Presidents' Day Meta

A meta?!? I thought that we couldn't do these at all! They'd survive until every normal puzzle had been solved, and then we'd have to give up on them.
Initially, we had no idea what went here, while we thought all the answers with food went to Thanksgiving. We had to get to 11 solves in Presidents' Day to prove that there wasn't enough food there to save us.
We had to spend 40 solvent on Presidents' Day to figure out what was going on. We needed exclusively two-word answers for this meta, and we couldn't tell what went to the other one at all.
This was, of course, the puzzle where Syntax suggested the worst type of mistake is when you throw out the correct answer. I joked about inserting "IM" into Francis Bacon to make Simba a couple of times, and then we moved on. Syntax was pretty vehement about the two-letter "couple" hearts going to Valentine's Day, as well, and making Simba would go against that.
Well, we needed Simba. And a lot of other characters, too.
While the actual puzzle went fast after we figured it out, we still needed to backsolve to figure out that "CLEAN ROOM" went here. That's because Running For Office explicitly presented it as a single word, and we were very much unsure if it could be separated.

Thanksgiving-Presidents' Day Meta

We'd always said that clearing one side of Presidents' Day would cause us to clear the other side.
In this case, we were doing everything correctly by using each column of presidents as indices by their succession order. That being said, we didn't know how to sort the answers at all, and consistently stumbled because we couldn't identify what answers fed this meta.
At first, we kept throwing things from the Thanksgiving-New Year's meta into this because we didn't know how to place words into the grid there, and because we didn't have two things long enough to fit in the fourth and fifth columns. Of course, we had no idea how to divide the Presidents' Day answers, either. Even though we'd assumed that the grid would give us a message starting with "they", there were lots of ways to do that which didn't work. There are still lots of wrong ways to do that even if you know exactly what goes to the meta.
I still haven't bothered to check whether there was actually a way to sort the answers-- we're too excited to have finally gotten beyond the Presidents' Day meta wall.

Safety Training

"There's only one common English phrase that fits that pattern?!?" - Syntax
This was straight-up backsolved. Apparently, three letters out of 20 is enough to do that.
Since we don't know if we were close to solving this or not, we haven't looked at how to get "MAY THE FORCE BE WITH YOU" yet. That being said, this probably was a relatively simple puzzle that we kept doing the wrong things on.
I don't have much more to say here, but this probably will end up in Tales someday.

Puzzle-Specific Notes (Unsolved)

Bloom Filter

Syntax told me that he found a way to prove whether we know about everything that passes the filter. Today, he actually coded something to test it-- we now know that we have the complete word list.
Beyond that tidbit, this is still practically stuck in the same place it was when we unlocked it.

Chain of Commands

We've assumed that "ST" ENTER needs to be a valid command in whatever this puzzle is about. Syntax and I have tested a lot of options-- stage commands didn't work, we've found a lot of questionable digital topics that might work (mostly CAD and Stata-related things), Syntax found out that it could be crochet shorthand, and I found a lot of resources for learning Vim a couple of weeks too late.
Most of the reason why this is stuck is because we have no idea what it's about, so I tried the novel approach of trying to guess at what topic would motivate the author to make this puzzle. Of course, I don't know who made this puzzle. After throwing out a few ideas for who could have written this, I came to the conclusion that, on its surface, Chain of Commands feels most similar to the work of the author behind Deep Blue and Poor Richard Goes to Sea. Going to devjoe's archives and reading what she wrote in the 2017 hunt, I found this massive chunk of knitting shorthand.
Syntax thought that this could be crochet shorthand, so that's potentially helpful! (Or extremely unhelpful.) Unfortunately, none of the words look meaningful, whether they're crochet instructions or not, and we've failed to find any use for them no matter what the puzzle is about.
Even though I thought that figuring out the topic of this puzzle would be a simple process, it's shown to be difficult, and even the most promising options aren't working. As weird as this feels to me, we probably need to figure out what the puzzle is about mechanically before we find the topic.

Picture Book

This is probably meant to be read row by row, since completely black squares don't seem to exist in horizontal blocks. We still haven't done a lot of work on this, and to some extent, we still don't really know what to do.

Standardized Mess

We haven't found the answer key that the tests were actually graded on yet. We also haven't found a way to read the bubbles as five-bit binary or as any other type of code, combined or uncombined.

Pi Day-Holi Meta

We used our first solvent in Holi on Chris Chros and found out that the answer went here. Of course, we still know very little about this meta. I'm guessing that we're still missing at least one and maybe two answers from the Pi Day side that feed this, which isn't helping us.

Both Bloomsday Metas

We have enough answers for both of these to be in really awkward positions. Either the Pi Day-Bloomsday meta doesn't alternate between holidays in its rows, or the Arbor Day-Bloomsday wheels aren't both meant to be filled in the same way. This is a situation where having more information has caused us to be more confused about what answers feed each meta.

New Year's-Holi Meta

If there's a meta that needs a buttload of really short answers, it has to be this one. That being said, we have no evidence for or against that idea other than us not understanding what could possibly take in "gut" or "oops".

Everything Else

I think that we actually solved most of the things we worked on at all this week. This was a surprisingly short "unsolved" section.
(We did get another solve on a puzzle not listed here while I was trying to figure out how to get through the spam filter, though. That will be saved for the next update.)


Christmas: 6/6, ⭐ (Nobel Laureate)
Halloween: 17/17, ⭐ (Starbucks Lover), proven anomaly (A Killer Party)
Thanksgiving: 14/16 (missing Jukebox Hero and Your Wish is My Command), ⭐️ (Cross Campus), proven anomaly (Stuffing)
Valentine's Day: 16/17 (missing The Treehouse of Crossed Destinies), ⭐ (Caressing), proven anomaly (Invisible Walls)
President's Day: 12/12, ⭐ (State Machine), proven anomaly (The Bill)
New Year's: 10/13 (missing Art Tours, First You Visit Burkina Faso, and Taskmaster), ⭐ (Display Case)
Arbor Day: 18/18, ⭐ (Delightful), proven anomaly (Middle School of Mines)
Pi Day: 16/18 (missing Clued Connections and Compass and Straightedge), ⭐️ (Playing a Round)
Holi: 11/17 (missing Battle of the Network Stars, Bee Movies, Chicago Loop, Have You Seen Me?, Riding The Tube, and Would Not Make Again), ⭐️ (Something in Common)
Bloomsday: 10/14 (missing Bloom Filter, Chain of Commands, Picture Book, and Standardized Mess)
Path metas: 7/14 (CH-HA, HA-TH, HA-VA, TH-PR, VA-PR, VA-AR, and AR-PI)
Events: 3/5 (missing Talk Like a Pirate Day and Date And Thyme/MLK Jr. Day)
Solvent stored: 10

Final Notes

If you can see this post, and there are 10 complete write-ups about different puzzles that got solved this week, and there aren't yet comments, then please let me know that it's visible to you.
Any input on Your Birthday Town is appreciated.
We have unresolved solvent on The Bill and Middle School of Mines; the only logical option I can think of is that they go to one of the supermetas in the middle of the page. Do they feed Your Birthday Town?
Otherwise, we have no further questions this week. Thank you all for reading these!
-Cheshire Songchild
submitted by CheshireSolves to mysteryhunt [link] [comments]

[VoG] [Research] Permutations and Probability

'...meaning is part of an object to the extent that it acts upon intelligence in a predictable way'. Douglas Hofstadter
Time to push forwards a little on our Alice in Wonderland descent into complete madness, my apologies for the delay, this is a very slow process, it simply takes time and there are no easy answers. Here I simply want to talk through what we've spent the last six weeks or so doing to bring everyone up to date for those that are interested.
...'what is an Engram you ask?... data, free from matter... pure meaning' Rahool's mutterings
I like to give a reference that we are using to ground our ideas, in this case we are mostly going back to school and looking at Douglas Hofstadter's 'Godel, Escher and Bach' again. An interesting book, broadly a wandering and discursive text about the problems of making machines think via allegories to logic structures, music and art, but a text that also provides a gateway level of knowledge into certain concepts and words we use on a regular basis, such as formal and axiomatic structures for example in the context of machines and AI. It provides some much needed context to the areas we do not have the time to talk through in detail in our threads, so if you are interested... or perhaps crazy... highly recommended. In particular, the sections 'Little Harmonic Labyrinth' and 'Canon; Intervallic Augmentation' I've found of value, there is also a really interesting section on the coded messages of music, DNA, and ancient languages (plus other such things), with one quote in particular given below to communicate where we think we are and how we are now trying to approach the puzzle we think have.
...'In these examples of decipherment of out-of-context messages [noting Hofstadter has just finished discussing Champollion and the deciphering of the Rossetta Stone] we can separate out fairly clearly three levels of information: (1) The frame message (2) the outer message and (3) the inner message, the message which is supposed to be transmitted: the emotional experiences of music, the phenotypes in genetics, the royalty and rights of ancient civilisations in tablets etc... to understand the inner message is to have extracted the meaning intended by the sender... to understand the frame message is to recognise the need for a decoding mechanism... to understand the outer message is to build, or know how to build, the correct decoding mechanism for the inner message... The three levels are very clear in the case of a message found in a bottle washed up on the beach. The first level, the frame message, is found when one picks up the bottle and sees that it is sealed, and contains a dry piece of paper. Even without seeing writing, one recognises this type of artefact as an information bearer, and at this point it would take an extraordinary -almost inhuman- lack of curiosity, to drop the bottle and not look further.'
...we think we are now trying to decode a language, and all we have so far – again, we think- is the frame message and the likely phonetic values to the alphabet... and that is unfortunately a very long way from having specific words or intent, even though the process we are following does appear to yield a mechanism as a universal language by which intent might be properly communicated... only one way to find out.... so onwards.
What have we been doing for weeks then, well, in a nutshell all we've done is redo everything that we had already done a couple of months ago, but this time with our larger fireteam, taking them through each stage and using this process as an opportunity to provide welcome criticism, and add a greater level of search strings to test against... it also presented an opportunity to double check everything we have done becuase there are a lot of numbers. Breaking it down, there are two foundation pillars to that exploration, and between them they form the bigger foundation upon which we continue to move forwards later, hopefully without wasting anyone's time.
The two pillars are simple, the first is the path or route we take through the binary. We have previously detailed this process of grouping notes, substituting with octal binary, reading as a continuous string, and finding polygonal patterns, but in a very real sense the numbers could mean anything and how do we know that taking another path would not yield other equally compelling patterns? The answer is because we've tried them, all of them, that is the first stage of what we have done over the past few weeks. Building up from a foundation of pure black and white distinction as a universal language, we have then sequentially tested every single possible variation of binary groupings, in particular focusing on octal and hexadecimal (three and four binary digit groups) in multiple groupings of notes as filters, two notes, three notes, four notes, etc. By using the musical strings we have found so far, we can set up a series of layers or filters to test every octal or hexadecimal variation through, and when you do that you can demonstrate that in all the possible variations you could take, hundreds, there is only one path that yields consistent and contextually relevant patterns (at this stage irrespective of specific intent). We are not going to repeat this work here, it is outrageously tedious and does not make for interesting reading, but if you have a desperate burning desire to see it you may join the slack chat where all the data is there for you including a simple version of the spreadsheets needed to recreate the process... knock yourselves out.. we trust this will be sufficient evidence for the community to demonstrate that we are neither kidding, nor trolling them, nor treating them like they are stupid, we are showing them how much work has gone into what we have found so far irrespective of whether what we have found turns out to be deliberate or not, all we have is probability, that is our guiding star.
On the latter point, that brings us to our second pillar. That we have found consistent patterns is mathematically indisputable and reproducible by anyone who takes the time to look, the question remains however... is this simply random chance or deliberate? Do the strings carry intent and meaning, i.e. are they actually a language? ...and that is a question that we unfortunately cannot answer with any certainty at this stage, all we can do (the best we can) is to try and pin down the probability of finding strings such as this so that you can make your own minds up as to whether this is actually something, or rather is just another dead end to ignore and add to the pile of salty trolls that have plagued Destiny from the start. There is no intent to deceive the community here, we are simply showing you what we have found and scratching our heads as to where it leads us, although it is with some humour that we make the observation again that in a game which speaks about Cryptography continually, the community still finds it so hard to believe that Bungie may actually have been crazy enough to put some real cryptography into it... personally I think you're all mad... but what do I know.
...'it teaches the art of thinking'. Rahool's mutterings
Onwards then. There appear to be two differing interpretations as to how to calculate the probabilities within these strings which cause confusion, we will describe them both, simple direct one first and then the more complex one after, the path less travelled, but before we do a quick refresher on the process we are using, apologies if this is insulting, we do not wish to belittle or patronise anyone, we simply want to make sure everyone is on the same page and understands what we are doing and why.
For calculating probability we are using permutations. Really simple concept, it just means we're expressing the probability something might happen as two numbers, the total number of ways something could happen, within the total number of all possible outcomes or paths you could take, so for example, with a coin toss there are only two possible outcomes, heads or tails, a binary pattern, thus our total permutation count for every possible outcome is 2. The probability of getting a head from one coin toss would then be written 1 / 2, thus there is one possible outcome from two possible permutations. By dividing the two numbers together to factorise and then multiplying by 100 you can then work out the probability as a percentage, thus 1 / 2 = 0.5, multiplied by 100 gives you 50% chance of getting a head. A die is similar, 6 possible outcomes, 1 through 6, so rolling a 1 would be a 1 / 6 chance, or 16.67%. Simple stuff, but it gets a little more complicated as we apply it to what we have.
The best way to explain further is simply to look at the string we've talked about so far, The Templars Yell. This is a ten note string which when taken in isolation (throwing away the last note for the time being) gives you three groups of three notes which yield three triangular numbers. What is the probability of that happening?... it depends... calculating the total number of possible outcomes is extremely easy, as blocks, we have three notes where each can fall within an eight note range, thus for each block of three, 8x8x8=512 (which matches the number of binary variations we have to choose from so we know the process is correct). Calculating the possibility of a particular number depends on whether you think these numbers carry specific intent or not, this defines an argument over two competing ways of interpreting what we have and so we are trying to use this as a framework to determine two different limits we can impose upon our process of calculating. If we start from the position that the numbers carry no meaning or intent, i.e. could have been any three polygonal numbers at random, then we will need to work out all our polygonal number sequences to test how many fall within the 512 permutation number range of three notes grouped together. So far, we have only found numbers up to 21-gonal (?-gonal simply means the number of sides in a polygon, thus a triangular number is 3-gonal etc). To make things simpler we have only used up to a 21-gonal alphabet (for the time being) and from there can take a guess at the probability of getting three of any polygonal or prime number by working out how many polygons and primes fall within our 512 variation binary range. This number is 250, thus for a three note string chosen at random from eight notes there is a 250 / 512 chance that it will land on a special number (one of our polygon or prime sequences), this then boils down to 1 / 2.048 chance (512 / 250 so that you have an expression which states for every 1 path that gives a special number answer, there are 2.048 paths that do not), which then results in 48.82% chance of landing on any of these special numbers for any random group of three notes.
Getting the probability of three special numbers at the same time then is simply an exercise of multiplying the three groups together, thus, 1 / 2.048 x 1 / 2.048 x 1 / 2.048 equals 1 / 8.59 or an 11% chance of getting any three special numbers within our full 21-gonal plus primes alphabet, which to be honest is not far off the chances of rolling a 1 on a die as given before, so pretty likely to my mind. In this particular case however, we do not have any three special numbers, we have three of the same special numbers, so following this observation we simply carry on exactly as we did before to work out the probability, only instead calculate the number of ways to say three of the same number at the same time, so for example, 98 primes in our 512 range, three of them, so 98x98x98 (98 raised to the power of three) equals 941,192 different ways to 'write' three primes as a sequence, then you go through each symbol in our alphabet the same way and add them together at the end, so for triangular, 30x30x30=27,000, then squares, 21x21x21=9,261 and so on up to the full 21-gonal. This gives a total of 1,002,904 different ways to 'write' three numbers as a continuous string against 512x512x512 = 134,217,728 which is the total number of paths we have in three groups of three notes, thus 1,002,904 / 134,217,728 boils down to 1 / 133 chance, so 0.7%.
What if we then simply choose to look at triangular numbers alone, and so assume these three groups of three triangular numbers carry some intent by the VEX (because they very clearly reflect the process we have used to find them, three groups of three Octal), then we can say that there are only 30 variations you could land on (30 triangular numbers within a full 512 permutation range), 30 / 512, that gives us a boiled down 1 / 17 chance that any three random notes will land on a triangular number, so the probability of nine random notes giving three triangular numbers would be 1 / 17 x 1 / 17 x 1 / 17 which equals 1 / 4,913... or a 0.02% chance of getting three triangular numbers together at the same time... ok then.
...both of these seem far too unlikely however, so if you want to argue that it is actually not that unlikely, then you do it by saying that as an inevitable bi-product of the process of counting octal binary forwards and then binary backwards as a group, there is an implicit bias in the numbers towards the lower end of the counting scale where there is a greater frequency of special numbers, thus using 30 / 512 for triangular numbers or 250 / 512 for any special number is not correct, and a more representative (if slightly generous) figure to use would be 30 / 256 for triangular and 209 / 256 for any number ...I agree, lets do that. 30 / 256 boiled down is a 1 / 8.5 chance, so 1 / 8.5 x 1 / 8.5 x 1 / 8.5 equals 1 / 614 or a 0.16% chance these three specific numbers could be there by accident... again, this assumes that we are looking for three triangular numbers within nine random notes, not three of any number, and that now needs to be done with a bias of 256, so 256x256x256 = 16,777,216 to give us our permutation count and we already know there are 1,002,904 ways to do it, thus 1,002,904 / 16,777,216 boils down to 1 / 16.72 or a 5.97% chance... getting any three numbers though... that is a 209 / 256 chance, so 1 / 1.2 x 1 / 1.2 x 1 / 1.2 which equates to 1 / 1.728 or 57.87%.
From there, it appears then that we can go no further, our limits are either a 0.16% chance if you believe those numbers are intentional or a 57.87% chance if they are not, and neither of them are particularly convincing as a foundation to move forwards on, and upon which side of the coin you ultimately fall appears simply to depend on faith alone... do you believe the numbers carry intent, or don't you?... and if this were the sum of the argument, we certainly would not have posted and wasted everyone's time... however... there is another way to look at the probability of this event which gives a very different answer. We would argue that everything we have done up to this point is not actually the process you should be using to calculate the limits of this event, it is too simple, in order to actually calculate them properly you need to use a different method, and the reason for this is simple, it is because of this strange attribute to these strings which we have labelled, harmonic.
As stated before, we've been through all the possible variations of octal and hex in multiple different note string lengths for our first pillar, so we know there is only one path in all of them when put through multiple filters that yields clear and consistent patterns. That the process we have is also contextually relevant to the game world is sort of a bonus, so for example, with the Vault itself, the first area, the Waking Ruins, you have three circles, two guardians each or a binary pattern of odds and evens over three groups. Octal logic then, in a pretty direct way, opens the doorway to the Vault. Then you could add the observation that the Oracles always and very deliberately spawn in three note groups, just as we are looking at them via our process, and then the reading of binary backwards is quite literally stamped on the Strangers forehead and rifle as a clue for you to follow... all of these things suggest to us even if this idea in the fullness of time turns out to be incorrect, there are a great many coincidences that stack up to make us suspicious enough to follow it up in some detail.
One other pattern to add to this pile of coincidences is what happens in the practical application (praxis) of the octal process to what we have been given as strings to look at. You see, what I personally -if no bugger else- finds interesting about the strings we have, is that in both cases of the Templar's Yell and in Eighth, they repeat. Eighth is seven notes over and over again, the Templars Yell is five notes repeated... thus 'all ends are beginnings'... another coincidence. By doing this, what you could argue is that the repetitions represent a fundamental frequency of sorts, kind of like the plucking of a string, so that over any given duration you will have a certain number of repetitions or Hz, almost mechanical in the way it keeps going over and over again.
What caught our attention in particular with this observation however, is that when you overlay the octal binary filter over the top of the repeating strings, they reveal an emergent pattern (3338 in the case of the Templar) which repeats itself as you would expect, only it repeats at a frequency that is different to the fundamental frequency within the original string that it came from in the first place. We've done a drawing of the Templar's Yell to try and explain what is happening...
Irrespective of right or wrong, irrespective of whether I personally am a mad dribbling troll or not, you've got to admit, that's pretty damn cool in a geek sort of way :) Fourier transforms, such as the symbol given for the release of the Alpha Lupi ARG puzzle, are a process where any given signal or complex frequency can be broken down into a series of multiple different hidden frequencies, the idea being that in any sound or played instrument there are multiple stacks of simpler frequencies that all combine together to form the character or timbre of the sound that comes out at the end. In effect, this is exactly what we have here, we have a repeating string at one frequency, and then a hidden string at another. The ratio between those two strings as confirmed in the picture is 3:2, or a perfect fifth, just like the spawn order of the days given in the original ARG (all except for Bb which is not in the correct position), or the formation of musical scales through Pythagorean Tuning. Irrespective of whether this idea is bonkers (as it may well be) or not, the coincidences do still keep mounting up.
How does this help us with our probabilities? Looking still at the Templar's Yell for the moment, if you look carefully at the image we have posted above what you'll see is that as our string of five notes repeats again and again alongside the three note filter (or sieve), what happens is that those notes are going out of sync with the filter, so as the pattern repeats, a different string of three notes ends up being grouped together. This is the underlying mechanism of where this strange harmonic ratio pattern is coming from, and it has two implications; first, it means looking for probabilities over nine notes is not correct, all we can look for is the probabilities inherent in that first string of five notes, and secondly within that string of five notes there is an inherent level of interdependence between each individual note and each adjacent or overlapping group, far beyond what an isolated random nine note (three group string) would be able to produce. Each number we get in our pattern 3338 is formed of three notes that can never be taken in isolation as we have tried to do in the previous example, but rather must be seen as intimately intertwined with the notes that are around them in context.. and when you do that it has a surprisingly dramatic impact upon the probability of something happening.
How do we calculate this probability?... unfortunately, there is only one way that my rather limited math prowess can come up with at the moment, the hard way. If you group together the five notes and calculate the permutations over eight variations of each note this gives you 8x8x8x8x8, or 32,768 possible variations, thus in order to calculate the probability you need to go through every one of those 32,768 permutations, expanding each one into a repeating string, and then checking what you get out at the end against the polygonal and prime alphabet... which is a lot of work, and why it has taken us some time to do. If you go back to our previous probability discussion, we stated that in a nine note random string there were 27,000 different ways you could make a string of three triangular numbers (30 x 30 x 30).... but... in a string of five notes, expanded in repetition as described above... there are not 27,000 different ways to write three triangular numbers... there are only 7.
Thus, by this more complex interpretation we can now work out our actual limits, so for any pattern of three taken from our entire polygonal and prime alphabet, there should be 1,002,904 different ways to do it, turns out there are 171 sequences that yield three primes (should be 941,192), 7 in 3-gonal (27,000), 5 in 4-gonal (9,261), 1 in 8-gonal (2,197) and 1 in 9-gonal (1,728), and that's it in 32,768 permutations. There appear to be no sequences higher than 9-gonal that we have found so far, thus our lowest rock bottom chance of getting three of any of our special numbers in a repeating pattern of five notes is (171+7+5+1+1) 185 / 32,768, which boils down to 1 / 177 chance, or 0.56%. (i.e. not 57.87%)
Then we can say that we don't just have three gonal numbers, we actually have four, 3338, so of our any possible three note combinations, how many of those strings also have a fourth number (thus we are expanding to twelve notes, not nine), turns out, 94 of those 185 do, thus for a string of four numbers following the pattern of any three polygonal or prime numbers followed by any further number chosen from the full range of our 21-gonal plus prime alphabet (that the Yell does not actually use), the probability of this string becomes 94 / 32,768, which boiled down gives you a 1 / 348 chance, or rather 0.28%... as an absolute rock bottom minimum that this string could be there by chance.
If you then instead take the other extreme or limit, and you ask, are these numbers contextually relevant which might imply intent, (noting again that these number describe pretty much exactly the process of how we found them, three groups of three octal binary) how many of those 32,768 sequences give the pattern 3338 repeating?... turns out, only 1, thus 1 / 32,768 which equates to 0.003% chance of getting this exact string by accident which is just stupid...
Is using polygonal numbers contextually relevant? Well, sort of yeah, on page three of book one of Euclid's Elements, right after working up axiomatically from a foundation of points and lines (much as we are doing from black and white), Euclid describes the formation of a geometric alphabet using polygonal numbers. He then likes to do lots of little sketches of geometry and circles, and Destiny really does love showing you these little pictures everywhere you go. Particularly though, on that same page three of Elements, just above the geometrical number sequences section, is an explanatory circle and line image which defines the axiom of geometrical counting he goes on to describe, and it just so happens that this image very suspiciously resembles the very common VEX circle and lines that you see plastered everywhere... just another coincidence though we are sure.. just like Theon being known for his work on astrolabes in addition to Elements, the very same astrolabes that the Vault door does so very much resemble.
At this stage, even the most hardened seventhyouareadirtylyingtrollslugandIwillbannishyouwithmymightysalt'ier,must by now concede that by the 99.72% chance that this string should not exist (at a minimum), we are not actually trolling anyone and have worked really hard to find this irrespective of whether it is actually anything or not? ...not convinced? understandable, we didn't believe it either, so we shall continue...
This is an interesting song. It appears quite frequently throughout the entire Destiny soundtrack, The Great Unknown, Hope for the Future, The Vex, etc.. the name is interesting given that it only has seven notes repeated again and again over a 42 note string, thus six repetitions in total (N.B. the greatest common divisor between 42 and 39 is 3. Common divisors, or at least for more complex numbers, are calculated using the Euclid Algorithm which is also given in Elements). Octave is Latin for Eighth, so we assume this to be the reference here, and, literally, it is a song built purely from singing Oracles as if that was supposed to be some sort of clue. If there was something interesting to find, likely to our minds it would have to be here.
What struck us about Eighth was that when you put it through the Octal binary three note filter, it also yielded polygonal patterns just like the Yell... odd we thought... unlike the Yell though, it yields a continuous string of polygonal or prime numbers. 9,5,1,8,8,21,7 (N.B. we use 1 to represent a prime number). Keeping in mind that this is actually a song, meaning it has it's own rules of harmony and melody to conform to in order for it to actually be a song and not just random noise, we have to ask ourselves as we did before, what is the chance that this continuous pattern could exist at random, and in turn, are those numbers contextually relevant? In the latter case, I have to say I'm not convinced they are, 21 and 7 perhaps are, they are the lifespan and number of Oracles in the well, and they are also the number of notes in Eighth needed to produce the seven number sequence we get out of it, the eights perhaps are also given the song title, but none of that is enough to convince me that they are so at this stage I will say no obvious meaning or contextual relevance jumps out, thus to calculate the probability we should only really use the absolute minimum limit.
Again as before, if we were using a block of three notes that was independent from every other block of three notes I'd be slightly less convinced, 1 / 1.2 (a 256 permutation biased sequence probability rather than 512) raised to the power of 7 equals 1 / 3.58 or 27%... but we are not... Eighth, like the Yell, repeats again and again so it has the same property of a complex interdependent relationship between each individual note, only through seven this time rather than five. On the assumption then that we take the position the numbers are not contextually relevant, i.e. any sequence of numbers would have done rather than this particular one, in order to calculate the probability we simply need to look for every possible continuous polygonal or prime sequence across the full range of our 21-gonal alphabet through seven notes expanded three times into a twenty one note sequence, and those need to be checked against each one of our 8x8x8x8x8x8x8 permutations, or 2,097,152 million possible paths. Eighth very specifically then only uses the same diatonic range as the Oracles, likely as a clue, so we need to add a filter for this also, and at the same time we need to keep in mind that by the simple method of calculating probability given previously, through a full 21 note string (which makes 7 numbers), there should be somewhere in the range of 61,035,156,250,000,000 quadrillion (2507) different possible ways to write a full sequence of polygonal numbers in a 21-gonal plus primes alphabet... instead, with seven repeating notes, it turns out there are only 5,790... so 5,790 / 2,097,152, gets boiled down to 1 / 362 or 0.27% chance... at a minimum... by which I mean that is any sequence possible not what we actually have here, so there is a minimum 99.73% chance that these numbers should not exist.
At the other extreme, adopting the position these numbers are actually contextually relevant in some way and carry specific intent (which we do not believe to be the case because it must still function as a song after all) it turns out there is only 1 way to write 9,5,1,8,8,21,7... so 1 / 2,097,152, means this song would have a 0.000048% probability of existing by random chance, but only if we find out it has some direct relevance, otherwise we cannot use this.
…'such "chunks" are not necessarily sets of contiguous notes [by which Hofstadter means musical notes in this context]; there may be disconnected sections which, taken together, carry some emotional meaning.... similarly, "genetic meaning" -that is, information about phenotype structure- is spread through all the small parts of a molecule of DNA, although nobody understands the language yet [as the book was written thirty odd years ago]. (Warning: Understanding this genetic "language" would not be the same as cracking the genetic code, something which took place in the 1960's. The genetic code tells how to translate small portions of DNA into various amino acids. Thus "cracking" the genetic code is comparable to figuring out the phonetic values of the letters of a foreign alphabet, but without figuring out the grammar of the language or the meanings of any of it's words. Cracking the genetic code was a vital step on the way to extracting the meaning of DNA strands, but it was only the first on a long path which is yet [again historic] to be trodden'.
The problem faced now for anyone who wants to argue the contrary here (of which I am included), is we have not found only one string with a 99blahblahwhatever% chance that it should not exist, but rather two, so what are the chances of that? As with everything else, the probability is simply the permutations multiplied by one another, total number of possible ways over total number of permutations, i.e. for the minimum possible (any string will do option) chance of finding both of these together, we need to multiply 1 / 348 (Yell) x 1 / 362 (Eighth), which equals a 1 / 125,976 or 0.00079%. Thus, even the most hardened cynic adopting the position that these numbers have no meaning and could have been there simply by accident must accept that in the face of the -at best- 99.99921% chance these strings should not exist, the integrity of their argument is steadily becoming progressively more difficult to maintain.... shame that... and then it gets worse.
It was around this time that we started to get this crazy idea that the original story was acting as an allegory to this puzzle, by which we mean that the story itself has two meanings that overlap one another. You can see this happening in many places, but in particular you can see it the areas where you have to get your ghost out to do some 'thinking' for you. This would suggest that each area where ghost appears to do something, is actually an area where you need to do something with this puzzle, and this (thankfully) provides something of a 'path' of sorts for you to follow whilst not giving you the exact solutions or processes needed.
Following this idea through from the point of The Stranger on Venus, the path here for your guardian, splits. There are two directions you may go, the first heads off through 'the Archive' mission where you first learn of the Vault of Glass, and then ultimately end up spending a great many hours of 'fun' playing with Sekrion's stones... he does so love it when you do that... the other leads to 'the Awoken', who in order to provide you access to the Black Garden (whatever that actually turns out to be), decide to make you a 'key'... and in order to do that, they need the head, or perhaps more specifically the 'Eye' of a Gatelord... so... we went and took a look. In the middle of the song Eye of a Gatelord is another string of singing Oracles. You will recognise this melody straight away as just as with Eighth, it keeps popping up all over the place (The Tribulation for example, or in the song Ishtar Sink but only transposed into a different key and incomplete, even at the start of the new Osiris trailer funnily enough), and when you put that twenty four note sequence through the process of octal decryption (bearing in mind that Saturn was 'pushed to that place for a reason'), the pattern you get out is 13,13,13,12,13,13,13,12. Is that number contextually relevant?... given the staggeringly enormous clock face or chromatic circle the Gatelord pops out of (a 'meta-dimensional frequency to summon him' as we have just found in some unused game audio) as simple references to music and time (13 digits, 12 segments in modulo logic etc).. I'd shrug and say... maybe.
Putting aside the observation that we now have another sequence like the Yell that yields a binary 1110 type pattern of three repeating numbers, what are the limits we can define for this in probability terms? As this sequence is not harmonic (in that it is not a repeated string), each three note block can be assumed to be independent to one another which significantly lowers the probability thankfully (because running numbers for 24 notes harmonically would be just stupid). Adopting the simpler method then, any possible sequence of three in the full 21-gonal plus prime alphabet (in addition to using a bias of 256 permutations not the full 512 {256x256x256=16,777,216 permutations}, you will note that I am continually being as generous as I can in massaging the potential to bring the probability down as much as possible), that means as before, 1,002,904 / 16,777,216, or 1 / 16.72 chance over the three blocks, multiplied by 1 / 1.2 for the single number at the end to make a block of four, then repeated twice, thus, 1 / 16.72 x 1 / 1.2 x 1 / 16.72 x 1 / 1.2 equals 1 / 402 or 0.25% chance, so that defines our lowest limit...
Assuming the other way however, i.e. what are the chances of getting just 13,13,13,12,13,13,13,12 exactly as a pattern, and again assuming a 256 bias not 512, there are 1000 possible routes in 16,777,216 permutations to make a block of 3 13-gonal symbols, multiplied by 10 possible ways per three note block to say 12 in a 256 permutation range (actually 10 in 512, but who's counting), thus 1000 / 16,777,216 boils down to 1 / 16,777 and 10 / 256 boils down to 1 / 25, so the final calculation would be 1 / 16,777 x 1 / 25 x 1 / 16,777 x 1 / 25 equals 1 / 175,917,330,625 billion which equates to 0.00000000056%.... or thereabouts.
Thus, the chance of us finding all three of these together, the Yell, Eighth and Eye of a Gatelord, (again at best) is 1 / 348 (Yell) x 1 / 362 (Eighth) x 1 / 402 (Eye of a Gatelord), which equates to a minimum possible 1 / 50,642,352 chance, which comes out at 0.0000018% ..and we haven't even spoken yet about other strings like the 1,1,1,11 we found in a transposition of the singing Oracles in 'The Path'. We are still to go through the rest of the soundtrack properly, this will take us some time unfortunately.
Thus, if you want to argue that I am a troll or a lying fraud, then there is a minimum 99.9999982% chance you are sadly mistaken, or if you want to go the other way, and look at the probability of just getting the exact numbers of what the team have found so far, then that is just such a stupidly small number it would eat far too much into the precious Reddit thread character count to write it all down... and what would be the point.
Where does this lead us then?... sadly, nowhere, which is the problem. The patterns are there and statistically unlikely true, but do they mean anything?... we don't know. The 1110 binary pattern popping up in a few places implies some form of wider intent, but that is by no means certain. These numbers could still be completely accidental (however unlikely), or they may simply have been put here to get our attention, to help us pin down the binary route not the solution, the VEX may instead be more like a computer in that we have a word length and logical operands to perform like a processor. Certainly, if the stories allegory idea is to be believed, this gets us only to the point of leaving Venus, we still have Mars ahead of us.
Interestingly, if the main story allegory idea holds true, the spatial language of the Vault itself might also provide important clues. Octal logic (quite literally) does open the doorway to the Vault as we noted before, the Trials of Kabr, angels with faces of light and darkness leading you to the seventh heaven would reflect a path through binary to the seven Oracles, but by that same allegory, the Vault suggests there may not be only one path to take here through and out the other-side, but rather two, and the location of the Gorgons Labyrinth beyond the Oracles certainly suspiciously mirrors where we are now, lost in a maze of potential patterns with only one small exit.
...'patterns in everything' Rahool mutterings
Looking back at those Oracles, our previous estimate of the number of permutations was 108,452,942,008,704 trillion (calculated via 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 1). This however does not account for the life-cycle of 21 seconds which provides a limit to how far the position of an Oracle may be moved in longer waves to re-sequence them. Going back to this permutation count again, and putting a series of filters over the top to reflect how long they can stay alive, our current estimation of permutations has been brought down to 14,272,553,832,768 trillion... still just stupid... but smaller thankfully... then to those we can overlay the idea of polygonal and prime pathways... are there any permutations which give a continuous polygonal or prime path? If you look at the waves independently in isolation as harmonic repeating strings (the easy way), the answer is no unfortunately, but if you look at the Oracles as a continuous string of 117bits (13 blocks or pyramids as we call them now), there are by our current count 1,188,366,200 billion different ways to form a continuous string in a 21-gonal plus prime alphabet... this yields a 0.008% chance of stumbling accidentally onto just one of those paths by random chance, let alone the exact one or two we suspect exist (a 0.00000000000007% chance)... which kind of kicks us in the teeth a bit :( we assume this to be (by allegory) the Exclusion Zone of Mars, and we certainly can't test all those routes. Somewhere in all of this there must be another clue or clues that we are missing, and that is what we are steadily working on now with the help of others... again it is going to take us some time, and it is a difficult thing to keep going when there is so little in the way of hope...
This then is our foundation, and at that, I'm bringing this madness to a close and I'm going back to my hole. Hope this helps and gives some ideas for other people still searching.
...'Awake, arise or be forever fall’n'. John Milton
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Fundamentals of Natural Dyeing of Textiles: Pros and Cons-Juniper Publishers

Fundamentals of Natural Dyeing of Textiles: Pros and Cons-Juniper Publishers


India is rich in natural wealth and there are ample scopes to explore and revive application of natural dyes on textiles for growing consciousness of eco friendliness. Hence around the world, there are more and more information are now made available [1,2] to understand the chemistry of natural dyes and interaction between metallic mordant , natural dyes and natural fibres, to get maximum depth of shade of natural colour ants with reproducible shades by optimizing extraction, mordanting method and dyeing conditions and also to improve colour fastness for such natural dyed textiles of natural fibres like cotton, silk, wool and jute etc.
In spite of the better performance of synthetic dyes, recently the use of natural dyes on textile materials has been attracting people more and more due to the following reasons [3]
o Wide availability of natural dyes in India and its subcontinent and their huge potential of producing wide range of shades with skin and eco-friendliness.
o Growing consciousness about allergic and toxic effects of some synthetic dyes, while understanding the non-toxic and non-allergic nature of natural dyes.
o To protect the ancient and traditional dyeing technology generating livelihood of poor artisan/dyers, with potential employment generation facility.
o To generate sustainable employment and income for the weaker section of population in rural and sub-urban areas both for dyeing as well as for non-food crop farming to produce plants for such natural dyes.
o Availability of some archaeological study for conservation and restoration of heritage of old textiles of India for natural dyed textiles.
o Availability more and more scientific study report on application methods for natural dyeing of specific textiles.
Production of synthetic dyes is dependent on petrochemical source, and some of the synthetic dyes contain toxic/ carcinogenic amines which are not eco-friendly The present global consumption of textiles is estimated at around 30 million tonnes, and such a huge amount of required textiles materials cannot be dyed with natural dye alone [2]. Hence, the use of eco-safe synthetic dyes is also essential. But a certain portion of coloured textiles can always be supplemented and managed by eco-safe natural dyes that too on natural fibres, assuring/ creating environment friendly measure of dyeing textiles, at least to a certain percentages.
Natural dyes consume 75% of 48,000 tonnes of dye stuff produced in the country [2]. The market for the natural dyestuffs is though very small but has a growing trend. Many textile manufacturers are not using these dyes regularly because these dyes are not easily available in ready form and finally the process of natural dyeing become more expensive than synthetic dyes. Researchers are however working to find out a cost effective way of dyeing with natural dyes, but at the same time efforts are on for obtaining reproducible shades with appreciable colour fastness properties.
U.S.A is one ofthe major importers of natural dyed textiles from India [4]. There is also very good demand in European countries. The primary importers in Europe are Germany, France, Italy and U.K. with demand for natural dyes is growing continuously due to awareness towards ecological and environmental problems related to the use of synthetic dyes. Use of synthetic dyes has cut down significantly due to toxic effluent resulting from the dyeing process of these dyes. Therefore, natural dyed products represent the good opportunity for value added manufacturing as the process is eco-friendly. These products are comfortable for the wearer as it has soothing colour and non-allergic properties [3]. The use of natural dyes will also generate more employment for rural people because natural dyes are originated in villages were the waste lands are used to grow the dye yielding plants [2].
The alchemy of colour has its origin deeply rooted thousands of years ago. From the epic age this colour has played a very important role in human life. This inspired us to explore the vast storehouse of the nature's palette to initially paint ourselves then to dye the apparels we wore. Natural colorants are dyes and pigments that are obtained from plant, animal or mineral sources with or without any chemical treatments.
Today, when the world is facing threats of destruction from the synthetic toxic chemicals, eco-friendly awareness should be the major focus, else, it would be difficult to save this planet from compete extinction. Here lies the relevance of revival of this art of dyeing with 'Natural Colorants' or 'Natural Dyes' [4,5].
It is told earlier that in general introduction that the production of synthetic chemicals involves many chemical reactions requiring high energy. Moreover, there are many undesirable by-products generated during the reactions [4,5]. These toxic or environment un-friendly by-products have to be discharged in the rivers, ponds or into the atmosphere. These drawbacks of the synthetic dyes have prompted researcher to look for alternatives of producing eco-friendly products and technologies using natural dyes for dyeing. Moreover, recently the consumers have become very much conscious about the environment, renaissance of eco-friendly products and process like dyeing of textiles with natural dyes.
Natural dyes many times lack in uniformity and reproducibility of colour. Also, the major problem encountered is their availability of natural dyes in bulk quantity. There is limited availability of scientific information on standardization of the methods application [5] of natural dyes. Sometimes natural dyes do not produce acceptable level of colour fastness. The question of cost is also a factor to reckon with. Antimicrobial and UV protection properties of natural dyes need to be explored after their application on textile fabrics. Hence, in the absence of any precise information of scientific analysis and technical knowledge on dyeing different natural fibre based textiles with natural dyes, there is a need to study the performance of various natural colorants on natural textiles including protein fibres and cellulosic/lignocellulosic fibres (having compositional differences) separately under different pre-treated/post treated conditions [5] varying different mordants and other additives.
Natural dyes have been used as a means to colour textiles for centuries. All the dyes until the later half of nineteenth century were made of different parts of plants and animals. For thousands of years people all over the world followed the same basic techniques using roots, stems, barks, leaves, hard wood, berries fruits, flowers of various dye plants and tree, as well as from certain insects and shell-fishes. Most natural dyes are nonsubstantive which means that they have little colouring power within themselves, and require the aid of mordant to penetrate the yarn/fibre.
In recent years, there has been an interest manifested towards natural dyes by both the consumers and producers of textile; the reasons being bio-degradability and eco-compatibility of natural dyes. Some other associated advantages include expected non-toxicity/lower toxicity [6,7] and anti-allergen [1] and some medicinal value as well as antimicrobial and UV protective character of some of the natural dyes.

Definition of natural dyes

The Society of Dyers & Colourist's Colour Index (3rd edition) defines natural colouring matters as 'the natural dyes and pigments comprise of all colours obtained from animal and vegetable matter with no or very little chemical treatments [1]. They are mainly mordant dyes [1,2], but they also include some vat, few disperse/solvent dyes, some pigment colour, a few direct, basic and acid dyes' [1].
The term natural dye covers all the dyes derived from the natural sources like plants, animal and minerals i.e., derived from natural resources [8]. Natural dyes with very few exceptions are non-substantive, but must be used in consumption with mordants. A mordant usually a metallic salt has an affinity for both the colouring matter and the fibre and combining with the dye in the fibre it forms an insoluble precipitate or lake. Application wise, natural dyes include some vat dyes, a few solvent dyes, some pigments, and some direct and acid dyes. Only one natural basic dye is known but natural sulphur, disperse, azoic or ingrain dyes are still not available so far.

Classification of natural dyes as per application method

Natural dyes can be classified [1,5] in a number of ways. The earliest classification was according to alphabetical order or according to the botanical names. Later, it was classified in various ways, e.g. on the basis of hue, chemical constitution, application method. Most widely used classification is based on application method.
Classification of natural dyes on the basis of the method of application [1,5,9] as given below :
a. Mordant dyes: These are dyestuffs which require a mordant in their application as they have no affinity for the fiber being dyed. A mordant dye should have electron donating groups capable of forming a complex with the transition metal salt, e.g., madder, fustic, Persian, berries, kermes, cochineal etc.
b. Vat dyes: These are water insoluble dyes which are first converted to their water soluble form (reducing with Na- hydrosulphite and then solubilising it with alkali) and then applied to the fibres. The true colour is produced only on treatment with a hot soap solution. The soaping treatment completes the oxidation process, e.g., Indigo.
c. Direct dyes: Direct dyes are those dyes that have tremendous affinity for the cellulosic fibres. They are dyed from a boiling dye bath. Turmeric, Harda, pomegranate rind etc. are a few of the direct natural dyes.
d.Acid dyes: These dyes are applied from an acidic medium. The dye molecules have either sulphonic or carboxylic group (s) which can form an electrovalent bond with amino groups of wool and silk. An after treatment with tannic acid and tartaremitic, known as back tanning improves the fastness of these types of dyes, e.g., Saffron.
e. Disperse dyes: Disperse dyes has a relatively low molecular mass, low solubility and no strong solubilizing groups. These dyes have hydroxyl and/or amino groups which impart same solubility to the dye molecule. Disperse dyes can be applied on to hydrophobic synthetic fibre from neutral to mildly acidic pH. They can also be applied to silk and wool. These dyes can be post-mordanted with chromium, copper and tin salts, e.g., lawsone and many other flavone and anthraquinone dyes.
f. Basic dyes: Basic or cationic dyes on ionization give coloured cations and form an electrovalent bond with the -COOH group of wool and silk. These dyes are applied from neutral to mildly acidic pH. These dyes have poor light fastness, e.g. berberine.

Methods of extraction of natural dyes

The vegetable dyes can be taken from various sources like flowers, roots, bark, animal sources, mineral sources etc. The colour component present in these sources needs to be extracted so that it can be applied on the textile. Most vegetable dyes are extracted by pulverizing, grinding or soaking and boiling the herbs in water. The natural dyes can be extracted from dried solid raw material source of plant parts etc using aqueous method [5] i.e., by using boiling/hot water for the extraction with or without addition of acid/alkali/alcohol in extraction bath [10] at specific pH, MLR, Temperature and time followed by distillation ,evaporation and vaccum drying etc or by waterless supercritical carbondioxide fluid extraction [11], or solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus extraction [12] by use of alcohol and benzene mixture and by using rotatory vacuum pump/or doing the extraction under reduced pressure etc. Some water insoluble plant material like indigo leaves (i.e Natural indigo being vat dye type) needs to be fermented and reduced to release the glucosides of the dye and this fermentation and reduction and solubilisation can be done with use of natural reducing agent and alkali combination (instead of Dithionite or disulphide and Caustic soda used for redcing synthetic vat dyes) like combination of liquid jiggery and citric acid, use of paste of citrous fruits like tomato, lemons, ripened banana paste and Ash soaked water etc., in combination with use of lime in all cases and heating. Various studies have also been reported, where ultrasonic assisted extraction and enzyme assisted extraction have been also now being used to improve the yield of colour. The colour developed in natural dyeing on different textiles is sometimes pH dependant besides it is mainly dependant on type of mordant used besides dye concentration and mordant concentration as well. However combination of similar types of natural dyes in different proportion of compatible natural dyes are also another way for producing different shades for colour matching for combined shades.

Methods and Steps for dyeing with natural dyes

Prior to dyeing with natural dyes, the fabric is to be prepared by proper desizing, scouring and bleaching followed by usual pre-mordanting with single or double mordants applied in sequence. The colour much depend on the type of single or double mordants used by selecting a suitable mordant and natural dye-mixture combinations depending upon the colour needed and colour fastness level desired. Dyeing with natural dyes on textiles comprises of five to six steps:
i. Mordanting.
ii. Preparation of Dye liquor from natural source or extraction and solubilisation of dye.
iii. Exhaustion,
iv. Diffusion and migration,
v. Fixation and
vi. After-treatments (optional) for improving fastness or topping for tonal variation and final colour matching etc.
To facilitate completion of dyeing in the shortest possible time, most dyeing systems make use of different additives and auxiliaries such as pH controller, retarders or exhausting agents, levelling agents etc. For dyeing with natural dyes, depending on the type and nature of natural dyes taken, the dyeing procedure and conditions will vary. Natural dyes often show non-reproducible shades due to variation in conditions of dyeing or following non-optimised conditions of dyeing. Hence, standardisation/optimisation of dyeing methods for specific dye-fibre-mordant combinations is essential. Most of the natural dyes being mordantable; dyeing with such natural dyes is carried out using aqueous extracts of natural dyes in aqueous medium in normal/not aqueous dye-bath. Dyeing with natural dyes may be carried by pre-mordanting, post-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting, following standardised dyeing process at low temperature water bath or in boiling water bath [5], HTHP technique [13], with additives controlling the pH of aqueous medium i.e. (acidity or alkalinity) [14,15], or using ultrasonic dyeing technique [2,16-19], using single natural colours or mixture of natural colours [12,20] extracted appropriately and found compatible scientifically
The major steps used in dyeing with natural dyes include the following:
a) The application of the suitable metallic mordant (mordanting) or bio mordant
b) The application of the tannin substance e.g. tannic acid, myrobolan fruit (harda) having chebulinic acid , gallnut etc. which is mainly done to increase the receptivity of the textile fabric for the dye to combine with the mordant and may be called as Mordanting Assistant (MA) increasing more and more dye- (mordant + MA )-fibre complexing in greater way
c) Dyeing of the fabric by the exhaust method.
The 2nd step can either precede or follow or be a part of the 3rd step (pre, post or simultaneous dyeing and mordanting).

Dye-bath assistants used for dyeing textiles with natural dyes

a) Tartaric acid: Dye bath solutions are acidified with it and it is used to neutralize calcareous luster
b) Cream of tartar: This white crystalline substance is used in conjunction with mordants. It brightens colors.
c) Glauber's salt/Common Salt: It is used extensively by silk dyers to obtain level dyeing.
d) Boiled-off liquor: The degumming solution, when used in the dye-bath, causes the colouring matter to be attracted more equally and evenly by the silk and helps preserve luster. Suggested quantities are 50-100ml boiled-off liquor to 1 litre of dye-bath solution.
e) Enzymes: Use of suitable enzymes as pre-treatment or in combination in dye bath for natural dyeing also enhance colour yield.

Advantages & disadvantages of natural dyes

In the recent years there has been an upsurge in the field of natural dyes. This is mainly because of the fact that although the synthetic colours are fast, durable and comparatively easy to apply, the natural dyestuffs have certain advantages over them. Some of these advantages are listed below:
a) Fairly non-polluting and have lower toxicity.
b) The naturally dyed shades are soft, lustrous and soothing to the human eye [1,5,21].
c) They produce a wide range of colours. A small variation in the dyeing technique or the use of different mordants with the same dye can create totally new colours, which are not possible with synthetic dyestuffs [1,5,22].
d) Natural dyestuffs produce rare colour ideas [1,5,23,24] and are automatically harmonizing.
e) Unlike the non-renewable which forms the basic raw materials for synthetic dyes, the vegetable based natural dyes are replaceable and at the same time biodegradable [1,2,5] . They save energy because the raw-materials are not from petroleum.
f) In some cases like hard a, indigo etc., the waste in the process becomes an ideal fertilizer for use in agricultural fields [1,5].
g) Many plants thrive on wastelands. Thus, wasteland utilization is an added merit of the natural dyes [1-2]. Dyes like madder grow as host in tea gardens. So there is no additional cost or effort required to grow it.
h) This is a labour intensive industry [1,5,21,23,24], thereby providing job opportunities for all those engaged in cultivation, extraction and application of these dyes.
i) It can increase the textile exports and thus help India in earning foreign exchange.
j) Some of its constituents are anti-allergens, hence prove safe for skin contact and are mostly non-hazardous to health [1,5,25].
k) Some of the natural dyes are enhanced with age, while synthetic dyes fade with time [9].
l) Natural dyes bleed but do not stain other fabrics [1,5,21,26], turmeric being an exception.
m) Naturally dyed materials have good resistance to moth and are anti-allergens; hence prove safe for body contact and are mostly non-toxic therefore non-hazardous to health [5].
n) Fabrics dyed with natural dyes can provide good protection against ultra violet rays without altering wear properties.
o) They are used in the conservation and repairs of historic textiles.
p) They can replace synthetic dyes in food-stuffs for safety [2,5].
Despite these advantages, they carry some inherent disadvantages [1,5], which were responsible for the decline of this art. Disadvantages of natural dyes:
a) There are lacks in sufficient scientific database and information on standardizing recipe and shade cards for the use of natural dyes [5,27] on different textiles. Hence, natural dyers are in complete uncertainty about dyeing shades and fastness results to obtained which vary from plant source to source, crop to crop and season to season (time to time and place to place and also from one crop to another) and even for mordant to mordant and their purity and extraction method. All these variations, if thus scientifically standardised, may be partially or completely avoided.
b) The extraction, preparation of textile materials requires and mordanting and natural dyeing need skilled craftsmanship and is thus expensive [5,28]. The use of expensive mordants, extraction of colouring component from raw material, low colour yield necessitating the use of more dyestuffs and long dyeing time sharply increase the cost of dyeing with natural dyeing considerably higher than synthetic dyes. However, if the natural dyeing of natural fibres is properly done maintaining eco-friendly processes, it has aspecilitynich market for eco friendly natural dyed products of textiles particularly for expensive textiles and garments of cotton, silk and wool etc.
c) Poor scientific back up of a large part of this branch of science is still being explored [5,29] and to be explored for its commercial exploitation in industrial scale for both small, medium and large scale sector. Natural dyeing using Jigger machine or Continuous dyeing range etc are the present days' need.
d) Lack of availability of precise scientific/technical knowledge on extraction and dyeing techniques [5,30] by optimizing dye wise and textile fibre wise process development for each natural dye type are essential to avoid the above said uncertainty for coloushades and their colour fastness characters .
e) The natural dyed textile fabric may change colour when exposed to the sun (UV light), sweat (human perspiration) and air (oxygen) and moisture (water). This cannot be controlled if not scientific research are done in depth to understand the exact reasons of these effects and exact chemical interaction present in such cases for exposure to any particular agency at any particular time, which are not yet known [5,27].
f) Nearly all-natural dyes with a few exceptions require the use of metallic mordants to fix them on to the fabric substrate. While dyeing, a substantial portion of the metallic mordant remains unexhausted in the residual dye bath and these metals may pose some effluent disposal problem [5,23,24]. So, useof hazardaous metallic mordants like Coppechromium etc are to be avoided.
g) With a few exceptions, most of the natural dyes are fugitive [1,5] even when applied in conjunction with a mordant. Therefore, their colour fastness performances are generally not always adequate for modern textile usage. Use of acidic pH in dye bath or post treatment with natural or eco safe dye fixer is needed to improve colour fastness to wash, light, rubbing and perspiration etc.
h) The widespread use of natural dyes will result in a major shift in the land use pattern throughout the world[30] . In reality the area needed to satisfy the demand for the production of natural dyes is unavailable, because higher priorities are placed on the growing of food crops for the world's burgeoning population. However, this may be noted that objective of promoting more and more natural dyeing is not to replace synthetic dyeing in totality or as majority, but objective of promoting natural dyeing is to promote eco- friendly dyed products of natural textiles forniche market for specific customers.
i) All natural products are not fully toxicity free. Very little work has been carried out to assess the toxicity of different natural dyes [23,24]. Although most of the natural dyes in use are known to have medicinal values and either antibacterial/ antimicrobial properties or UV protective properties and are eco safe , but there are reports on one or two natural dyes/ colour source materials that have been identified as posing potential ecological or toxicity problems, e.g. quercetin is considered to be mutagenic. On the other hand, new synthetic dyes are fully tested for their levels of toxicity, and when introduced in the market, they have a full set of data on their toxicity test and eco-toxicity profiles. Such studies and database for each natural dyes are needed essentially
j) There is severe shortage of trained dyers for application of natural dyes. Most of the so-called textile chemists in the country are trained to use synthetic dyes. If this technology is to be used for producing eco-friendly textiles, generating revenue, employment as well as for creating a strong base for renewable resources for the dye industry, a comprehensive training and interaction programme has to be launched.
k) Dearth of books and scientific literature on the technology of natural dyeing providing required the scientific basis for their application on different textiles.
l) Non-availability of the natural dyes in pure or standardised form, which may be powder, paste or in the solution form for easy and direct application in known shade percentage. Using source raw natural material directly for dyeing has many limitations, besides its being of unknown composition and colour yield, it generates considerable amount of biomass that is cumbersome to handle in the dye- house.
Inspite of the aforementioned limitations associated with natural dyes, it is expected to have a separate good export market potential for fabrics from natural fibers dyed and printed with natural dyes, because of the rigid standards imposed by the advanced countries in combating toxicity, eco- hazards and pollution control problems.

Constrains for the uses of natural dyes on textiles

The major hurdles for using natural dyes are serious gap and lack/non-availability of scientific data base and knowledge base required for their successful application on textiles. Most of the researchers worked in this area generated very general information on types of shades/colour fastness properties and their dyeing related information reported in literature that does not have complete profile of its chemical nature, materials data specification sheet, standardized extraction and dyeing procedure and scientific reasoning for its nature of problems and solution and basis for nature of bonding between dye-mordant and fibre system, methods of improvement of colour fastness to wash, light, rubbing and perspirations and compatibility of different natural dyes to apply together as mixture of different proportions for obtaining compound shades and required matching etc. There are very limited information available on use of binary and ternary mixture of natural dyes and their interaction/compatibility etc, for which use of mixture of natural dyes are still limited in traditional natural dyeing sector and have not advanced satisfactorily.
Unnecessary adverse talk and biased opinion are opinion of synthetic dye manufactureusers against the use of natural dyes, where some of their logics are being over emphasised deliberately. One must keep in mind that natural dyes are NOT a substitute of synthetic dyes. They have their own market and any expansion in the market of natural dyed products is not going to be at the cost of losing synthetic dyes.

Colour fastness of natural dyes

Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its colour characteristics, to the transfer of its colourants to adjacent materials or both. Fading means that the change of colour strength (lightening or darkening) on washing or rubbing or in contact with human perspiration or on exposure to light. Cook [31] has described the use of post treatment with natural tannin related natural materials as after-treatment for improving the wash fastness and use of natural UV absorbers for improving the light fastness of mordant able natural dyes on cotton. There are many pre-treatments and post treatments known for improving either of wash-fastness, rub-fastness and light fastness of textiles dyed with synthetic dyes, but such treatments on textiles dyed with natural dyes are still very few. So, exploring such fastness improver from natural materials is essential.
The light fastness is the resistance of dyestuffs to the influence of UV-light energy [32], especially the ultraviolet (UV-A) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV light is subdivided into three category e.g UV-A (320-400nm), UV-B (280-320nm) and UV-C (100-280nm). The shorter is the wavelength (X), the higher is the energy E and higher is the damage to dyestuff or human skin (as per Einstein's rule: E= hv = [h X c/X)]. Fortunately UV-C is fully absorbed by ozone layer in the higher atmosphere (stratosphere), the usual content of UV-B in the total radiation intensity is less than 1% and is not that harmful, while to earth most common part of UV light reaches easily from Sunlight is UV-A part (320-400nm), which is about 5.6%. So, identifying of some UV absorbers from natural materials capable of absorbing UV -A part i.e in the region of 320-400nm and their application to dyed textiles are to be established.
The light fastness of the applied dyestuffs is sometimes also connected to the fading or inherent yellowing tendency of the fibre itself. Yellowing by UV Light exposure and associated damage to the fibre itself by exposure to UV light also accelerates fading of colour with or without photo-initiated fading of dyestuff[31] . Fading by UV light is generally promoted by moisture, heat, oxygen in air and other factors. The interactions of these influencing factors, including UV-absorbers photo-sensitizers, radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers and their possible chemical reactions and interactions are quite complex. Moreover light fastness of natural dyes depends on its UV-absorption character of that dye [21,24,33]. Some natural dyes have inherent UV protective nature like anar peel/pomegranate rind.
Poor wash fastness of many natural dyes is mainly attributed because of weak dye-fibre bond formation between the natural dye -mordant and the fibre, change in hue due to breaking of dye- metallic mordant-fibre complex during washing for ionisation of the natural dyes during washing [12]. Since most of the natural dyes have hydroxyl groups which get ionised under alkaline conditions/acidic conditions and hence many fabrics dyed with natural dyes under acidic conditions change colour on washing with alkaline detergents or soap. Wash fastness of the natural dyes much depends on their chemical nature and type of bonds dye-mordant-fibre as a coordinating complex formed with specific dye-metal salt mordant-fibre combination. But as per expectations, many times there is less or limited very little or no such complex are formed actually and only H-bonding are formed causing poor wash fastness, which may be due to many reasons like stereo specific non fitting of physical structure/orientation of dye structure and fibre structure or any other problems.
Rubbing fastness is assessed by measuring change in colour on the rubbed textile surface or assessing the staining to the abrader white cloth after abrading in both dry and wet conditions (for wet rubbing fastness , additionally the migration of colour to the abrading cloth by bleeding is also included). Depending on the kind of fibre, especially its tensile strength, small abraded coloured fibre particles may fuzz out showing loss of depth of colour on the rubbed textile surface. If the dyestuff involved is water soluble and not sufficiently fixed on the fibre surface, this can also be the reason for staining during rubbing. Rub-fastness ratings, according to the standard grey scales for both loss of depth (fading) and staining scale, range from 1 (poor rating) to 5 (best rating). Parameters that influence rubbing fastness of natural dyes include:
a. Molecular size and structure, chemical nature and fixation mode of Natural dyes used.
b. Type of mordants and Concentrations of mordants.
c. Concentration of natural dyestuff, shade%, and extent of diffusion of dyes.

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3.6 release Python (Part 2)

SSL session can be copied from one client-side connection to another with the new SSLSession class. TLS session resumption can speed up the initial handshake, reduce latency and improve performance (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-19500 based on a draft by Alex Warhawk.)
The new get_ciphers() method can be used to get a list of enabled ciphers in order of cipher priority. All constants and flags have been converted to IntEnum and IntFlags. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28025.)
Server and client-side specific TLS protocols for SSLContext were added. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28085.)


A new harmonic_mean() function has been added. (Contributed by Steven D’Aprano in bpo-27181.)


struct now supports IEEE 754 half-precision floats via the 'e' format specifier. (Contributed by Eli Stevens, Mark Dickinson in bpo-11734.)


subprocess.Popen destructor now emits a ResourceWarning warning if the child process is still running. Use the context manager protocol (with proc: ...) or explicitly call the wait() method to read the exit status of the child process. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26741.) The subprocess.Popen constructor and all functions that pass arguments through to it now accept encoding and errors arguments. Specifying either of these will enable text mode for the stdin, stdout and stderr streams. (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-6135.)


The new getfilesystemencodeerrors() function returns the name of the error mode used to convert between Unicode filenames and bytes filenames. (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-27781.) On Windows the return value of the getwindowsversion() function now includes the platform_version field which contains the accurate major version, minor version and build number of the current operating system, rather than the version that is being emulated for the process (Contributed by Steve Dower in bpo-27932.)


Telnet is now a context manager (contributed by Stéphane Wirtel in bpo-25485). time
The struct_time attributes tm_gmtoff and tm_zone are now available on all platforms. timeit
The new Timer.autorange() convenience method has been added to call Timer.timeit() repeatedly so that the total run time is greater or equal to 200 milliseconds. (Contributed by Steven D’Aprano in bpo-6422.)
timeit now warns when there is substantial (4x) variance between best and worst times. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-23552.)


Added methods trace_add(), trace_remove() and trace_info() in the tkinter.Variable class. They replace old methods trace_variable(), trace(), trace_vdelete() and trace_vinfo() that use obsolete Tcl commands and might not work in future versions of Tcl. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-22115).


Both the traceback module and the interpreter’s builtin exception display now abbreviate long sequences of repeated lines in tracebacks as shown in the following example:
def f(): f()...>>> f()Traceback (most recent call last):
File "", line 1, in
File "", line 1, in f
File "", line 1, in f
File "", line 1, in f [Previous line repeated 995 more times]RecursionError:
maximum recursion depth exceeded (Contributed by Emanuel Barry in bpo-26823.) tracemalloc The tracemalloc module now supports tracing memory allocations in multiple different address spaces. The new DomainFilter filter class has been added to filter block traces by their address space (domain). (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26588.) typing Since the typing module is provisional, all changes introduced in Python 3.6 have also been backported to Python 3.5.x. The typing module has a much improved support for generic type aliases. For example Dict[str, Tuple[S, T]] is now a valid type annotation. (Contributed by Guido van Rossum in Github #195.) The typing.ContextManager class has been added for representing contextlib.AbstractContextManager. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-25609.) The typing.Collection class has been added for representing (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi in bpo-27598.) The typing.ClassVar type construct has been added to mark class variables. As introduced in PEP 526, a variable annotation wrapped in ClassVar indicates that a given attribute is intended to be used as a class variable and should not be set on instances of that class. (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi in Github #280.) A new TYPE_CHECKING constant that is assumed to be True by the static type chekers, but is False at runtime. (Contributed by Guido van Rossum in Github #230.) A new NewType() helper function has been added to create lightweight distinct types for annotations:
from typing import NewType
UserId = NewType('UserId', int)some_id = UserId(524313) The static type checker will treat the new type as if it were a subclass of the original type. (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi in Github #189.) unicodedata The unicodedata module now uses data from Unicode 9.0.0. (Contributed by Benjamin Peterson.) unittest.mock The Mock class has the following improvements: Two new methods, Mock.assert_called() and Mock.assert_called_once() to check if the mock object was called. (Contributed by Amit Saha in bpo-26323.) The Mock.reset_mock() method now has two optional keyword only arguments: return_value and side_effect. (Contributed by Kushal Das in bpo-21271.) urllib.request If a HTTP request has a file or iterable body (other than a bytes object) but no Content-Length header, rather than throwing an error, AbstractHTTPHandler now falls back to use chunked transfer encoding. (Contributed by Demian Brecht and Rolf Krahl in bpo-12319.) urllib.robotparser RobotFileParser now supports the Crawl-delay and Request-rate extensions. (Contributed by Nikolay Bogoychev in bpo-16099.) venv venv accepts a new parameter --prompt. This parameter provides an alternative prefix for the virtual environment. (Proposed by Łukasz Balcerzak and ported to 3.6 by Stéphane Wirtel in bpo-22829.) warnings A new optional source parameter has been added to the warnings.warn_explicit() function: the destroyed object which emitted a ResourceWarning. A source attribute has also been added to warnings.WarningMessage (contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26568 and bpo-26567). When a ResourceWarning warning is logged, the tracemalloc module is now used to try to retrieve the traceback where the destroyed object was allocated. Example with the script
import warnings
def func():
return open(__file__) 
f = func()f = None Output of the command python3.6 -Wd -X tracemalloc=5 ResourceWarning: unclosed file <_io.TextIOWrapper
name='' mode='r' encoding='UTF-8'>
f = NoneObject allocated at (most recent call first):
File "", lineno 4
return open(__file__) 
File "", lineno 6
f = func() 
The “Object allocated at” traceback is new and is only displayed if tracemalloc is tracing Python memory allocations and if the warnings module was already imported.


Added the 64-bit integer type REG_QWORD. (Contributed by Clement Rouault in bpo-23026.)


Allowed keyword arguments to be passed to Beep, MessageBeep, and PlaySound (bpo-27982). xmlrpc.client
The xmlrpc.client module now supports unmarshalling additional data types used by the Apache XML-RPC implementation for numerics and None. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26885.) zipfile
A new ZipInfo.from_file() class method allows making a ZipInfo instance from a filesystem file. A new ZipInfo.is_dir() method can be used to check if the ZipInfo instance represents a directory. (Contributed by Thomas Kluyver in bpo-26039.)
The method can now be used to write data into a ZIP file, as well as for extracting data. (Contributed by Thomas Kluyver in bpo-26039.)


The compress() and decompress() functions now accept keyword arguments. (Contributed by Aviv Palivoda in bpo-26243 and Xiang Zhang in bpo-16764 respectively.)


  • The Python interpreter now uses a 16-bit wordcode instead of bytecode which made a number of opcode optimizations possible. (Contributed by Demur Rumed with input and reviews from Serhiy Storchaka and Victor Stinner in bpo-26647 and bpo-28050.)
  • The asyncio.Future class now has an optimized C implementation. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov and INADA Naoki in bpo-26081.)
  • The asyncio.Task class now has an optimized C implementation. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-28544.)
  • Various implementation improvements in the typing module (such as caching of generic types) allow up to 30 times performance improvements and reduced memory footprint.
  • The ASCII decoder is now up to 60 times as fast for error handlers surrogateescape, ignore and replace (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-24870).
  • The ASCII and the Latin1 encoders are now up to 3 times as fast for the error handler surrogateescape (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25227).
  • The UTF-8 encoder is now up to 75 times as fast for error handlers ignore, replace, surrogateescape, surrogatepass (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25267).
  • The UTF-8 decoder is now up to 15 times as fast for error handlers ignore, replace and surrogateescape (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25301).
  • bytes % args is now up to 2 times faster. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25349). bytearray % args is now between 2.5 and 5 times faster. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25399).
  • Optimize bytes.fromhex() and bytearray.fromhex(): they are now between 2x and 3.5x faster. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25401).
  • Optimize bytes.replace(b'', b'.') and bytearray.replace(b'', b'.'): up to 80% faster. (Contributed by Josh Snider in bpo-26574).
  • Allocator functions of the PyMem_Malloc() domain (PYMEM_DOMAIN_MEM) now use the pymalloc memory allocator instead of malloc() function of the C library. The pymalloc allocator is optimized for objects smaller or equal to 512 bytes with a short lifetime, and use malloc() for larger memory blocks. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26249).
  • pickle.load() and pickle.loads() are now up to 10% faster when deserializing many small objects (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-27056).
  • Passing keyword arguments to a function has an overhead in comparison with passing positional arguments. Now in extension functions implemented with using Argument Clinic this overhead is significantly decreased. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-27574).
  • Optimized glob() and iglob() functions in the glob module; they are now about 3–6 times faster. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25596).
  • Optimized globbing in pathlib by using os.scandir(); it is now about 1.5–4 times faster. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26032).
  • xml.etree.ElementTree parsing, iteration and deepcopy performance has been significantly improved. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25638, bpo-25873, and bpo-25869.)
  • Creation of fractions.Fraction instances from floats and decimals is now 2 to 3 times faster. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25971.)

Build and C API Changes

Python now requires some C99 support in the toolchain to build. Most notably, Python now uses standard integer types and macros in place of custom macros like PY_LONG_LONG. For more information, see PEP 7 and bpo-17884.
Cross-compiling CPython with the Android NDK and the Android API level set to 21 (Android 5.0 Lollilop) or greater runs successfully. While Android is not yet a supported platform, the Python test suite runs on the Android emulator with only about 16 tests failures. See the Android meta-issue bpo-26865.
The --enable-optimizations configure flag has been added. Turning it on will activate expensive optimizations like PGO. (Original patch by Alecsandru Patrascu of Intel in bpo-26359.)
The GIL must now be held when allocator functions of PYMEM_DOMAIN_OBJ (ex: PyObject_Malloc()) and PYMEM_DOMAIN_MEM (ex: PyMem_Malloc()) domains are called.
New Py_FinalizeEx() API which indicates if flushing buffered data failed. (Contributed by Martin Panter in bpo-5319.)
PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() now supports positional-only parameters. Positional-only parameters are defined by empty names. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26282). PyTraceback_Print method now abbreviates long sequences of repeated lines as "[Previous line repeated {count} more times]". (Contributed by Emanuel Barry in bpo-26823.)
The new PyErr_SetImportErrorSubclass() function allows for specifying a subclass of ImportError to raise. (Contributed by Eric Snow in bpo-15767.)
The new PyErr_ResourceWarning() function can be used to generate a ResourceWarning providing the source of the resource allocation. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-26567.)
The new PyOS_FSPath() function returns the file system representation of a path-like object. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-27186.)
The PyUnicode_FSConverter() and PyUnicode_FSDecoder() functions will now accept path-like objects.
The PyExc_RecursionErrorInst singleton that was part of the public API has been removed as its members being never cleared may cause a segfault during finalization of the interpreter. Contributed by Xavier de Gaye in bpo-22898 and bpo-30697.

Other Improvements

When --version (short form: -V) is supplied twice, Python prints sys.version for detailed information.
$ ./python -VVPython 3.6.0b4+ (3.6:223967b49e49+, Nov 21 2016, 20:55:04)[GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Apple LLVM 8.0.0 (clang-800.0.42.1)]


New Keywords

async and await are not recommended to be used as variable, class, function or module names. Introduced by PEP 492 in Python 3.5, they will become proper keywords in Python 3.7. Starting in Python 3.6, the use of async or await as names will generate a DeprecationWarning.

Deprecated Python behavior

Raising the StopIteration exception inside a generator will now generate a DeprecationWarning, and will trigger a RuntimeError in Python 3.7. See PEP 479: Change StopIteration handling inside generators for details.
The aiter() method is now expected to return an asynchronous iterator directly instead of returning an awaitable as previously. Doing the former will trigger a DeprecationWarning. Backward compatibility will be removed in Python 3.7. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-27243.)
A backslash-character pair that is not a valid escape sequence now generates a DeprecationWarning. Although this will eventually become a SyntaxError, that will not be for several Python releases. (Contributed by Emanuel Barry in bpo-27364.)
When performing a relative import, falling back on name and path from the calling module when spec or package are not defined now raises an ImportWarning. (Contributed by Rose Ames in bpo-25791.)
Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods


The asynchat has been deprecated in favor of asyncio. (Contributed by Mariatta in bpo-25002.)


The asyncore has been deprecated in favor of asyncio. (Contributed by Mariatta in bpo-25002.)


Unlike other dbm implementations, the dbm.dumb module creates databases with the 'rw' mode and allows modifying the database opened with the 'r' mode. This behavior is now deprecated and will be removed in 3.8. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-21708.)


The undocumented extra_path argument to the Distribution constructor is now considered deprecated and will raise a warning if set. Support for this parameter will be removed in a future Python release. See bpo-27919 for details.


The support of non-integer arguments in getgrgid() has been deprecated. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-26129.)


The importlib.machinery.SourceFileLoader.load_module() and importlib.machinery.SourcelessFileLoader.load_module() methods are now deprecated. They were the only remaining implementations of in importlib that had not been deprecated in previous versions of Python in favour of
The importlib.machinery.WindowsRegistryFinder class is now deprecated. As of 3.6.0, it is still added to sys.meta_path by default (on Windows), but this may change in future releases.


Undocumented support of general bytes-like objects as paths in os functions, compile() and similar functions is now deprecated. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25791 and bpo-26754.)


Support for inline flags (?letters) in the middle of the regular expression has been deprecated and will be removed in a future Python version. Flags at the start of a regular expression are still allowed. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-22493.)


OpenSSL 0.9.8, 1.0.0 and 1.0.1 are deprecated and no longer supported. In the future the ssl module will require at least OpenSSL 1.0.2 or 1.1.0.
SSL-related arguments like certfile, keyfile and check_hostname in ftplib, http.client, imaplib, poplib, and smtplib have been deprecated in favor of context. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28022.)
A couple of protocols and functions of the ssl module are now deprecated. Some features will no longer be available in future versions of OpenSSL. Other features are deprecated in favor of a different API. (Contributed by Christian Heimes in bpo-28022 and bpo-26470.)


The tkinter.tix module is now deprecated. tkinter users should use tkinter.ttk instead.


The pyvenv script has been deprecated in favour of python3 -m venv. This prevents confusion as to what Python interpreter pyvenv is connected to and thus what Python interpreter will be used by the virtual environment. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-25154.)

Deprecated functions and types of the C API

Undocumented functions PyUnicode_AsEncodedObject(), PyUnicode_AsDecodedObject(), PyUnicode_AsEncodedUnicode() and PyUnicode_AsDecodedUnicode() are deprecated now. Use the generic codec based API instead.

Deprecated Build Options

The --with-system-ffi configure flag is now on by default on non-macOS UNIX platforms. It may be disabled by using --without-system-ffi, but using the flag is deprecated and will not be accepted in Python 3.7. macOS is unaffected by this change. Note that many OS distributors already use the --with-system-ffi flag when building their system Python.


API and Feature Removals

  • Unknown escapes consisting of '\' and an ASCII letter in regular expressions will now cause an error. In replacement templates for re.sub() they are still allowed, but deprecated. The re.LOCALE flag can now only be used with binary patterns.
  • inspect.getmoduleinfo() was removed (was deprecated since CPython 3.3). inspect.getmodulename() should be used for obtaining the module name for a given path. (Contributed by Yury Selivanov in bpo-13248.)
  • traceback.Ignore class and traceback.usage, traceback.modname, traceback.fullmodname, traceback.find_lines_from_code, traceback.find_lines, traceback.find_strings,
  • traceback.find_executable_lines methods were removed from the traceback module. They were undocumented methods deprecated since Python 3.2 and equivalent functionality is available from private methods.
  • The tk_menuBar() and tk_bindForTraversal() dummy methods in tkinter widget classes were removed (corresponding Tk commands were obsolete since Tk 4.0).
  • The open() method of the zipfile.ZipFile class no longer supports the 'U' mode (was deprecated since Python 3.4). Use io.TextIOWrapper for reading compressed text files in universal newlines mode.
  • The undocumented IN, CDROM, DLFCN, TYPES, CDIO, and STROPTS modules have been removed.
  • They had been available in the platform specific Lib/plat-*/ directories, but were chronically out of date, inconsistently available across platforms, and unmaintained. The script that created these modules is still available in the source distribution at Tools/scripts/
*The deprecated asynchat.fifo class has been removed.

Porting to Python 3.6

  • This section lists previously described changes and other bugfixes that may require changes to your code.

Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior

8 The output of a special Python build with defined COUNT_ALLOCS, SHOW_ALLOC_COUNT or SHOW_TRACK_COUNT macros is now off by default. It can be re-enabled using the -X showalloccount option. It now outputs to stderr instead of stdout. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-23034.)

Changes in the Python API

  • open() will no longer allow combining the 'U' mode flag with '+'. (Contributed by Jeff Balogh and John O’Connor in bpo-2091.)
  • sqlite3 no longer implicitly commits an open transaction before DDL statements.
  • On Linux, os.urandom() now blocks until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized to increase the security.
  • When is defined, must also be defined.
  • PyErr_SetImportError() now sets TypeError when its msg argument is not set. Previously only NULL was returned.
  • The format of the co_lnotab attribute of code objects changed to support a negative line number delta. By default, Python does not emit bytecode with a negative line number delta. Functions using frame.f_lineno, PyFrame_GetLineNumber() or PyCode_Addr2Line() are not affected. Functions directly decoding co_lnotab should be updated to use a signed 8-bit integer type for the line number delta, but this is only required to support applications using a negative line number delta. See Objects/lnotab_notes.txt for the co_lnotab format and how to decode it, and see the PEP 511 for the rationale.
  • The functions in the compileall module now return booleans instead of 1 or 0 to represent success or failure, respectively. Thanks to booleans being a subclass of integers, this should only be an issue if you were doing identity checks for 1 or 0. See bpo-25768.
  • Reading the port attribute of urllib.parse.urlsplit() and urlparse() results now raises ValueError for out-of-range values, rather than returning None. See bpo-20059.
  • The imp module now raises a DeprecationWarning instead of PendingDeprecationWarning.
  • The following modules have had missing APIs added to their all attributes to match the documented APIs: calendar, cgi, csv, ElementTree, enum, fileinput, ftplib, logging, mailbox, mimetypes, optparse, plistlib, smtpd, subprocess, tarfile, threading and wave. This means they will export new symbols when import * is used. (Contributed by Joel Taddei and Jacek Kołodziej in bpo-23883.)
  • When performing a relative import, if package does not compare equal to spec.parent then ImportWarning is raised. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-25791.)
  • When a relative import is performed and no parent package is known, then ImportError will be raised. Previously, SystemError could be raised. (Contributed by Brett Cannon in bpo-18018.)
  • Servers based on the socketserver module, including those defined in http.server, xmlrpc.server and wsgiref.simple_server, now only catch exceptions derived from Exception. Therefore if a request handler raises an exception like SystemExit or KeyboardInterrupt, handle_error() is no longer called, and the exception will stop a single-threaded server. (Contributed by Martin Panter in bpo-23430.)
  • spwd.getspnam() now raises a PermissionError instead of KeyError if the user doesn’t have privileges.
  • The socket.socket.close() method now raises an exception if an error (e.g. EBADF) was reported by the underlying system call. (Contributed by Martin Panter in bpo-26685.)
  • The decode_data argument for the smtpd.SMTPChannel and smtpd.SMTPServer constructors is now False by default. This means that the argument passed to process_message() is now a bytes object by default, and process_message() will be passed keyword arguments. Code that has already been updated in accordance with the deprecation warning generated by 3.5 will not be affected.
  • All optional arguments of the dump(), dumps(), load() and loads() functions and JSONEncoder and JSONDecoder class constructors in the json module are now keyword-only. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-18726.)
  • Subclasses of type which don’t override may no longer use the one-argument form to get the type of an object.
  • As part of PEP 487, the handling of keyword arguments passed to type (other than the metaclass hint, metaclass) is now consistently delegated to object.init_subclass(). This means that and type.init() both now accept arbitrary keyword arguments, but object.init_subclass() (which is called from will reject them by default. Custom metaclasses accepting additional keyword arguments will need to adjust their calls to (whether direct or via super) accordingly.
  • In distutils.command.sdist.sdist, the default_format attribute has been removed and is no longer honored. Instead, the gzipped tarfile format is the default on all platforms and no platform-specific selection is made. In environments where distributions are built on Windows and zip distributions are required, configure the project with a setup.cfg file containing the following:
This behavior has also been backported to earlier Python versions by Setuptools 26.0.0.
  • In the urllib.request module and the http.client.HTTPConnection.request() method, if no Content-Length header field has been specified and the request body is a file object, it is now sent with HTTP 1.1 chunked encoding. If a file object has to be sent to a HTTP 1.0 server, the Content-Length value now has to be specified by the caller. (Contributed by Demian Brecht and Rolf Krahl with tweaks from Martin Panter in bpo-12319.)
  • The DictReader now returns rows of type OrderedDict. (Contributed by Steve Holden in bpo-27842.)
  • The crypt.METHOD_CRYPT will no longer be added to crypt.methods if unsupported by the platform. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in bpo-25287.)
  • The verbose and rename arguments for namedtuple() are now keyword-only. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger in bpo-25628.)
  • On Linux, ctypes.util.find_library() now looks in LD_LIBRARY_PATH for shared libraries. (Contributed by Vinay Sajip in bpo-9998.)
  • The imaplib.IMAP4 class now handles flags containing the ']' character in messages sent from the server to improve real-world compatibility. (Contributed by Lita Cho in bpo-21815.)
  • The mmap.write() function now returns the number of bytes written like other write methods. (Contributed by Jakub Stasiak in bpo-26335.)
  • The pkgutil.iter_modules() and pkgutil.walk_packages() functions now return ModuleInfo named tuples. (Contributed by Ramchandra Apte in bpo-17211.)
  • re.sub() now raises an error for invalid numerical group references in replacement templates even if the pattern is not found in the string. The error message for invalid group references now includes the group index and the position of the reference. (Contributed by SilentGhost, Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-25953.)
  • zipfile.ZipFile will now raise NotImplementedError for unrecognized compression values. Previously a plain RuntimeError was raised. Additionally, calling ZipFile methods on a closed ZipFile or calling the write() method on a ZipFile created with mode 'r' will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised in those scenarios.
  • when custom metaclasses are combined with zero-argument super() or direct references from methods to the implicit class closure variable, the implicit classcell namespace entry must now be passed up to for initialisation. Failing to do so will result in a DeprecationWarning in 3.6 and a RuntimeWarning in the future.

Changes in the C API

The PyMem_Malloc() allocator family now uses the pymalloc allocator rather than the system malloc(). Applications calling PyMem_Malloc() without holding the GIL can now crash. Set the PYTHONMALLOC environment variable to debug to validate the usage of memory allocators in your application. See bpo-26249.
Py_Exit() (and the main interpreter) now override the exit status with 120 if flushing buffered data failed. See bpo-5319.

CPython bytecode changes

There have been several major changes to the bytecode in Python 3.6. The Python interpreter now uses a 16-bit wordcode instead of bytecode. (Contributed by Demur Rumed with input and reviews from Serhiy Storchaka and Victor Stinner in bpo-26647 and bpo-28050.)
The new FORMAT_VALUE and BUILD_STRING opcodes as part of the formatted string literal implementation. (Contributed by Eric Smith in bpo-25483 and Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-27078.) The new BUILD_CONST_KEY_MAP opcode to optimize the creation of dictionaries with constant keys. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-27140.)
The function call opcodes have been heavily reworked for better performance and simpler implementation. The MAKE_FUNCTION, CALL_FUNCTION, CALL_FUNCTION_KW and BUILD_MAP_UNPACK_WITH_CALL opcodes have been modified, the new CALL_FUNCTION_EX and BUILD_TUPLE_UNPACK_WITH_CALL have been added, and CALL_FUNCTION_VAR, CALL_FUNCTION_VAR_KW and MAKE_CLOSURE opcodes have been removed. (Contributed by Demur Rumed in bpo-27095, and Serhiy Storchaka in bpo-27213, bpo-28257.)
The new SETUP_ANNOTATIONS and STORE_ANNOTATION opcodes have been added to support the new variable annotation syntax. (Contributed by Ivan Levkivskyi in bpo-27985.)

Notable changes in Python 3.6.2

New make regen-all build target

To simplify cross-compilation, and to ensure that CPython can reliably be compiled without requiring an existing version of Python to already be available, the autotools-based build system no longer attempts to implicitly recompile generated files based on file modification times.
Instead, a new make regen-all command has been added to force regeneration of these files when desired (e.g. after an initial version of Python has already been built based on the pregenerated versions).
More selective regeneration targets are also defined - see for details.
New in version 3.6.2.

Removal of make touch build target

The make touch build target previously used to request implicit regeneration of generated files by updating their modification times has been removed. It has been replaced by the new make regen-all target.
Changed in version 3.6.2.

Notable changes in Python 3.6.5

The locale.localeconv() function now sets temporarily the LC_CTYPE locale to the LC_NUMERIC locale in some cases.

End of the Document

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